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Low temperature hot corrosion fatigue damage mechanism, life model and corrosion resistance design method of hot section components
ZHAO Gaole, QI Hongyu, LI Shaolin, LIU Yang, YANG Xiaoguang, SHI Duoqi, SUN Yantao
 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-020
Abstract(211) HTML(74) PDF(62)
Abstract:
Hot corrosion fatigue is the key factor affecting the service life of hot section components due to combined effect of high temperature, mechanical load and salt spray atmosphere for gas turbine engines serving in coastal areas or marine environments. In this paper, the damage mechanism, life model and corrosion resistant design methods of low temperature hot corrosion fatigue are summarized and commented. Meanwhile, the research trend and direction in the future are put forward. Firstly, the hot corrosion fatigue failure cases and damage evolution mechanism of gas turbine engine hot section components are described. Next, the phenomenological model, damage mechanics model, fracture mechanics model and machine learning model of low temperature corrosion fatigue life were analyzed. Moreover, several representative segmented full-life corrosion fatigue models considering different stages of corrosion evolution are reviewed, and the development trend of full-life corrosion fatigue models is also put forward. Finally, the corrosion resistant design methods for gas turbine engine material selection, parts manufacturing, structural strength design and operation and maintenance are summarized. In addition, the hot corrosion fatigue in additive manufacturing and the application of nondestructive testing technology and artificial intelligence in hot corrosion fatigue research are also prospected.
Cellular mechanobiology: mediated by force-sensitive adhesion receptors
ZHANG Huan, ZHAO Guoqing, FENG Jinteng, LIN Min
 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-029
Abstract(823) HTML(92) PDF(355)
Abstract:
As the interface between cells and their external environment for materials and energy exchange, the cell membrane is an important structure that regulates cellular activities. Representative transmembrane force-sensitive receptors, such as integrins and cadherins, are found to play key roles in mediating cellular interactions with the ECM or adjacent cells. These interactions will then transduce mechanical stimuli into biochemical signals, which in turn activate a series of intracellular signaling cascade, and ultimately affect cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis etc. The investigation of cellular mechanobiology regulated by force-sensitive adhesion receptors has thus become the key to explore the mechanobiological mechanisms of cellular actively in response to complex mechanical microenvironments. This provides valuable theoretical and experimental basis for further understanding of the changes in cell functions under physiological and pathological conditions, as well as for revealing the mechanism of disease development. This review summarizes the cutting-edge progresses in cellular mechanobiology regulated force-sensitive adhesion receptors. This review begins by introducing the structure and function of force-sensitive receptors at the adhesion interface, and followed by elaborating systematic mathematical models of how cells sense and respond to mechanical signals mediated by these receptors. It also outlines the processes of mechanical signal transduction through force-sensitive receptors, and the mechanobiological mechanism of adhesion-mediated changes in cell functions. In addition, the techniques for constructing of in vitro mechanical microenvironment that mimic cell-ECM (via integrin ligation) and cell-cell (via cadherin ligation) interactions are described. Finally, we identify the future directions of mechanobiology in terms of force-sensitive receptors regulated cell functions.
Virtual element method: Theory and applications
LIU Chuanqi, XU Guangtao, WEI Yujie
 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-037
Abstract(130) HTML(13) PDF(64)
Abstract:
Virtual Element Method (VEM) is a recently-developed numerical method suitable for arbitrarily convex or concave cells. This benefits the VEM to handle hanging nodes, contacts and polycrystalline deformations. We here illustrate the theory of the VEM via the Poisson equation and the elastic problem, and summarize its applications to non-linear problems. Compared to the Finite Element Method (FEM), the characteristics of the VEM are explained in details. The VEM has demonstrated potentials to model contacts, cracks, coupling of multiple physics, and etc. We hope that this review can provides an alternative means for software developers in computational mechanics.
Advances of peridynamics in fracture mechanics
ZHANG Heng, ZHANG Xiong, QIAO Pizhong
 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-023
Abstract(419) HTML(43) PDF(180)
Abstract:
In peridynamics, nonlocal integrals are proposed to calculate the node internal forces, and a unified mathematical framework is utilized to describe spatial continuity and discontinuity, which thus avoid the stress singularity caused by the local spatial derivative in the discontinuous region. Numerical peridynamic models have meshfree property, which is naturally capable of analyzing the fracture problems. In this paper, the elastic peridynamic model is briefly introduced, and the critical stretch, critical energy density, and strength-based peridynamic bond failure criteria are successively presented. Then, the research advances of peridynamics in the field of fracture mechanics are systematically introduced, including the computations of energy release rate and stress intensity factor, J integral, mixed-mode crack fracture, elastoplastic fracture, cohesive zone model, dynamic fracture, hybrid material interface fracture, and fatigue crack growth. Finally, the prospects for further research of peridynamics in fracture mechanics is provided.
Progress in turbulent thermal convection in the past decade and outlook
XIE Yichao, ZHANG Lu, DING Guangyu, CHEN Xin, XI Hengdong, XIA Keqing
 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-024
Abstract(229) HTML(43) PDF(81)
Abstract:
Turbulent convection is ubiquitous in nature and industry. Turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) is a model system for studying various turbulent convection phenomena. One of the characteristics of turbulent RBC is the formation of coherent structures of different scales, i.e., the large-scale circulation and thermal plumes. These structures interact with the thermal and viscous boundary layers. As a result, they inevitably affect the transport properties of the system. Thus, understanding the formation, evolution, and interaction of coherent structures plays a vital role in our understanding of the transport properties in turbulent convection. This review summarizes progress in the spatial and temporal evolution of the coherent structures and their effects on heat transport in the past decade. Special attention was paid to the progress in controlling turbulent convection and its extension to nontraditional cases, such as turbulent convection with rotation, viscoelastic turbulent convection, multiphase turbulent convection, inclined convection, and horizontal convection. A short outlook into the future research directions will be given.
Design of acoustic/elastic phase gradient metasurfaces: Principles, functional elements, tunability, and coding
CHEN A-li, WANG Yuesheng, WANG Yanfeng, ZHOU Hongtao, YUAN Simin
 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-031
Abstract(253) HTML(104) PDF(123)
Abstract:
Acoustic/elastic metasurfaces as a kind of two-dimensional metamaterials are of subwavelength thickness and show remarkable ability of acoustic/elastic wave manipulation. They have potential applications in various fields such as acoustic imaging, communications, cloaking, camouflage, vibration/noise control, energy harvesting, and nondestructive testing. In this review, we mainly summarize recent developments in acoustic/elastic phase gradient metasurfaces, including design principles, design of functional elements, wave field manipulation with applications, design of tunable metasurfaces, as well as the emerging digital coding metasurfaces. At last, we outline the future research directions in this field.
Coupling dynamics of floating wind turbines: History, progress and challenges
WEN Binrong, TIAN Xinliang, LI Zhanwei, PENG Zhike
 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-018
Abstract(279) HTML(79) PDF(164)
Abstract:
Wind power is one of the most important branches of renewable energy resources, and it is playing an important role in innovating energy system and mitigating global climate change. After decades of development, wind turbines are becoming larger in size and are advancing into offshore regions. In the offshore sites with water depths more than 50 meters, the Floating Wind Turbine (FWT) is thought to be advantaged both technically and economically. Nowadays, the FWT is regarded as one of the most promising alternatives for the exploitation of offshore wind resource in the future. In this review, the coupling dynamics of FWTs is focused on, and the development of the FWT technology at home and abroad are reviewed. Then the research status of FWT coupling dynamics as well as its optimization is introduced and discussed. Finally, the major difficulties and challenges in the study of FWT coupling dynamics are concluded. This review can serve as a guideline for the researches in the FWT community.
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