Volume 51 Issue 3
Sep.  2021
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Lian Y P, Wang P D, Gao J, Liu J K, Li Q H, Liu C M, He X F, Gao L, Li H, Lei H S, Li H M, Xiao D B, Guo X, Fang D N. Fundamental mechanics problems in metal additive manufacturing: A state-of-art review. Advances in Mechanics, 2021, 51(3): 648-701 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-037
Citation: Lian Y P, Wang P D, Gao J, Liu J K, Li Q H, Liu C M, He X F, Gao L, Li H, Lei H S, Li H M, Xiao D B, Guo X, Fang D N. Fundamental mechanics problems in metal additive manufacturing: A state-of-art review. Advances in Mechanics, 2021, 51(3): 648-701 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-037

Fundamental mechanics problems in metal additive manufacturing: A state-of-art review

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-037
More Information
  • Corresponding author: yangping.lian@bit.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 2021-06-29
  • Accepted Date: 2021-08-02
  • Available Online: 2021-08-25
  • Publish Date: 2021-09-25
  • Metal additive manufacturing (AM) is a kind of disruptive manufacturing technology that considers the needs of complex geometry fabrication and high-performance part fabrication. Hence, it has broad applications and extensive development space in aviation, aerospace, transportation, nuclear power, to name a few. However, its large-scale applications suffer from the challenge, including improving manufacturing efficiency and achieving the geometry and mechanical property as desired, which is a cross-cutting problem involving multi-discipline such as mechanics, optics, material science, mechanical engineering, control science. In the viewpoint of mechanics associated with the challenge, this paper critically reviews the recent research progress of AM-oriented structure topology optimization design, numerical simulation of the metal AM process, as-built defects characterization, and mechanical performance evaluation of the fabricated metal materials and components, which are referred to as structure design-process modelling-performance evaluation for metal AM. Finally, research topics that are required to address the fundamental mechanical problems in terms of structure design-process modelling-performance evaluation in AM of metallic components are provided.


  • loading
  • [1]
    陈嘉伟, 熊飞宇, 黄辰阳, 廉艳平. 2020. 金属增材制造数值模拟. 中国科学: 物理学 力学 天文学, 50: 090007 (Chen J W, Xiong F Y, Huang C Y, Lian Y P. 2020. Numerical simulation on metallic additive manufacturing. Scientia Sinica Physica, Mechanics & Astronomica, 50: 090007).
    耿汝伟, 杜军, 魏正英, 魏培. 2018. 金属增材制造中微观组织相场法模拟研究进展. 材料导报, 32: 1145-1150 (Geng R W, Du J, Wei Z Y, Wei P. 2018. Current research status of phase field simulation for microstructures of additive manufactured metals. Materials Review A, 32: 1145-1150). doi: 10.11896/j.issn.1005-023X.2018.07.015
    耿汝伟, 杜军, 魏正英. 2020. 电弧增材制造成形规律、组织演变及残余应力的研究现状. 机械工程材料, 44: 11-17 (Geng R W, Du J, Wei Z Y. 2020. Research process of formation law, microstructure evolution and residual stress in wire and arc additive manufacturing. Materials for Mechanical Engineering, 44: 11-17). doi: 10.11973/jxgccl202012002
    贾文鹏, 林鑫, 陈静, 杨海鸥, 钟诚文, 黄卫东. 2007. 空心叶片激光快速成形过程的温度/应力场数值模拟. 中国激光, 34: 1308-1312 (Jia W P, Lin X, Chen J, Yang H O, Zhong C W, Huang W D. 2007. Temperature/stress field numerical simulation of hollow blade produced by laser rapid forming. Chinese Journal of Lasers, 34: 1308-1312). doi: 10.3321/j.issn:0258-7025.2007.09.031
    李涤尘, 苏秦, 卢秉恒. 2015. 增材制造——创新与创业的利器. 航空制造技术, 10: 40-43 (Li D C, Su Q, Lu B H. 2015. Additive manufacturing - Tool for innovation and entrepreneurship. Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology, 10: 40-43).
    刘洋, 徐怀忠, 汪小锋, 李治国, 胡建波, 王永刚. 2021. 冲击载荷下增材制造金属材料的动态响应及微观结构演化研究进展. 高压物理学报, 35: 040102 (Liu Y, Xu H Z, Wang X F, Li Z G, Hu J B, Wang Y G. 2021. Progress in dynamic responses and microstructure evolution of the additive manufactured alloys under impact load. Chinese Journal of High Pressure Physics, 35: 040102).
    倪辰旖, 张长东, 刘婷婷, 廖文和. 2018. 基于固有应变法的激光选区熔化成形变形趋势预测. 中国激光, 45: 0702004 (Ni C Y, Zhang C D, Liu T T, Liao W H. 2018. Deformation prediction of metal selective laser melting based on inherent strain method. Chinese Journal of Lasers, 45: 0702004). doi: 10.3788/CJL201845.0702004
    史同亚, 刘东升, 陈伟, 谢普初, 汪小锋, 王永刚. 2019. 激光选区熔化增材制造 GP1 不锈钢动态拉伸力学响应与层裂破坏. 爆炸与冲击, 39: 073101 (Shi T Y, Liu D S, Chen W, Xie P C, Wang X F, Wang Y G. 2019. Dynamic tensile behavior and spall fracture of GP1 stainless steel processed by selective laser melting. Explosion and Shock Waves, 39: 073101).
    田小永, 李涤尘, 卢秉恒. 2016. 空间3D打印技术现状与前景. 载人航天, 22: 471-476 (Tian X Y, Li D C, Lu B H. 2016. Status and prospect of 3D printing technology in space. Manned Spaceflight, 22: 471-476).
    王超, 徐斌, 段尊义, 荣见华. 2021. 面向增材制造的应力最小化连通性拓扑优化. 力学学报, 53: 1070-1080 (Wang C, Xu B, Duan Z Y, Rong J H. 2021. Additive manufacturing-oriented stress minimization topology optimization with connectivity. Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 53: 1070-1080). doi: 10.6052/0459-1879-20-389
    王华明. 2014. 高性能大型金属构件激光增材制造: 若干材料基础问题. 航空学报, 35: 2690-2698 (Wang H M. 2014. Materials’ fundamental issues of laser additive manufacturing for high-performance large metallic components. Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica, 35: 2690-2698).
    魏雷, 林鑫, 王猛, 等. 2017. 金属激光增材制造过程数值模拟. 航空制造技术, 13: 15-25 (Wei L, Lin X, Wang M, et al. 2017. Numerical simulation on laser additive manufacturing process for metal components. Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology, 13: 15-25).
    魏青松, 史玉升. 2016. 增材制造技术原理与应用. 北京: 科学出版社

    Wei Q S, Shi Y S. 2016. Additive Manufacturing Technology Principles and Applications. Beijing: Science Press
    吴正凯, 吴圣川, 张杰, 宋哲, 胡雅楠, 康国政, 张海鸥. 2019. 基于同步辐射X射线成像的选区激光熔化Ti-6Al-4V合金缺陷致疲劳行为. 金属学报, 55: 811-820 (Wu Z K, Wu S C, Zhang J, Song Z, Hu Y N, Kang G Z, Zhang H O. 2019. Defect induced fatigue behaviors of selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V via synchrotron radiation X-ray tomography. Acta Metallurgica Sinica, 55: 811-820). doi: 10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00408
    庄茁, 柳占立, 成健. 2020. 连续体和结构的非线性有限元. 北京: 清华大学出版社

    Zhuang Z, Liu Z L, Cheng J. 2020. Nonlinear Finite Elements for Continua and Structures. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press
    Aggarwal A, Patel S, Vinod A R, Kumar A. 2021. An integrated Eulerian-Lagrangian-Eulerian investigation of coaxial gas-powder flow and intensified particle-melt interaction in directed energy deposition process. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 166: 106963. doi: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2021.106963
    Ahmadi A, Mirzaeifar R, Moghaddam N S, et al. 2016. Effect of manufacturing parameters on mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel parts fabricated by selective laser melting: A computational framework. Materials and Design, 112: 328-338. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2016.09.043
    Åkerfeldt P, Colliander M H, Pederson R, et al. 2018. Electron backscatter diffraction characterization of fatigue crack growth in laser metal wire deposited Ti-6Al-4V. Materials Characterization, 135: 245-256. doi: 10.1016/j.matchar.2017.11.041
    Akgun E, Zhang X, Biswal R, et al. 2021. Fatigue of wire+arc additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V in presence of process-induced porosity defects. International Journal of Fatigue, 150: 106315. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2021.106315
    Alaghmandfard R, Dharmendra C, Odeshi A G, Mohammadi M. 2020. Dynamic mechanical properties and failure characteristics of electron beam melted Ti-6Al-4V under high strain rate impact loadings. Materials Science and Engineering A, 793: 139794. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2020.139794
    Alexandersen J, Lazarov B S. 2015. Topology optimisation of manufacturable microstructural details without length scale separation using a spectral coarse basis preconditioner. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 290: 156-182. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2015.02.028
    Amani Y, Dancette S, Delroisse P, et al. 2018. Compression behavior of lattice structures produced by selective laser melting: X-ray tomography based experimental and finite element approaches. Acta Materialia, 159: 395-407. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2018.08.030
    Ammer R, Markl M, Ljungblad U, Korner C, Rude U. 2014. Simulating fast electron melting with a parallel thermal free surface lattice Boltzmann method. Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 67: 318-330.
    Asgari H, Odeshi A, Hosseinkhani K, Mohammadi M. 2018. On dynamic mechanical behavior of additively manufactured AlSi10Mg. Materials Letters, 211: 187-190. doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2017.10.001
    Babamiri B B, Askari H, Askari H, Hazeli K. 2020. Deformation mechanisms and post-yielding behavior of additively manufactured lattice structures. Materials & Design, 188: 108443.
    Bagheri Z S, Melancon D, Liu L, et al. 2017. Compensation strategy to reduce geometry and mechanics mismatches in porous biomaterials built with Selective Laser Melting. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 70: 17-27. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.04.041
    Bao H, Wu S, Wu Z, Kang G, Peng X, Withers P J. 2021. A machine-learning fatigue life prediction approach of additively manufactured metals. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 242: 107508. doi: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2020.107508
    Beghini L L, Stender M, Moser D, Trembacki B L, Veilleux M G, Ford K R. 2021. A coupled fluid-mechanical workflow to simulate the directed energy deposition additive manufacturing process. Computational Mechanics, 67: 1041-1057. doi: 10.1007/s00466-020-01960-9
    Bendsøe M P, Kikuchi N. 1988. Generating optimal topologies in structural design using a homogenization method. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 71: 197-224. doi: 10.1016/0045-7825(88)90086-2
    Beretta S, Gargourimotlagh M, Foletti S, et al. 2020. Fatigue strength assessment of “as built” AlSi10Mg manufactured by SLM with different build orientations. International Journal of Fatigue, 139: 105737. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2020.105737
    Biswal R, Zhang X, Shamir M, et al. 2019. Interrupted fatigue testing with periodic tomography to monitor porosity defects in wire + arc additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V. Additive Manufacturing, 28: 517-527. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.04.026
    Biswas N, Ding J L, Balla V K, et al. 2012. Deformation and fracture behavior of laser processed dense and porous Ti6Al4V alloy under static and dynamic loading. Materials Science and Engineering A, 549: 213-221. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2012.04.036
    Chen Q, Liang X, Hayduke D, Liu J, Cheng L, Oskin J, Whitmore R, To A C. 2019. An inherent strain based multiscale modeling framework for simulating part-scale residual deformation for direct metal laser sintering. Additive Manufacturing, 28: 406-418. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.05.021
    Chen J, Wei H, Bao K, et al. 2021. Dynamic mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel fabricated by an additive manufacturing process. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 11: 170-179. doi: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2020.12.097
    Chen S, Duan Q. 2020. An adaptive second-order element-free Galerkin method for additive manufacturing process. Computational Materials Science, 183: 109911. doi: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2020.109911
    Chen S, Wang M Y, Liu A Q. 2008. Shape feature control in structural topology optimization. Computer-Aided Design, 40: 951-962. doi: 10.1016/j.cad.2008.07.004
    Chen X, Li C, Bai Y. 2021. Topology optimization of sandwich structures with solid-porous hybrid infill under geometric constraints. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 382: 113856. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2021.113856
    Chen Y, Zhang J, Gu X, et al. 2018. Distinction of corrosion resistance of selective laser melted Al-12Si alloy on different planes. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 747: 648-658. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.03.062
    Cheng L, Liang X, Bai J, Chen Q, Lemon J, To A C. 2019. On utilizing topology optimization to design support structure to prevent residual stress induced build failure in laser powder bed metal additive manufacturing. Additive Manufacturing, 27: 290-30. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.03.001
    Childerhouse T, Hernández-Nava E, Tapoglou N, et al. 2021. The influence of finish machining depth and hot isostatic pressing on defect distribution and fatigue behaviour of selective electron beam melted Ti-6Al-4V. International Journal of Fatigue, 147: 106169. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2021.106169
    Chu S, Guo C, Zhang T, Wang Y, et al. 2020. Phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in electron beam additive manufacturing. The European Physical Journal E, 43: 35. doi: 10.1140/epje/i2020-11952-1
    Dai N, Zhang L, Zhang J, et al. 2016. Distinction in corrosion resistance of selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy on different planes. Corrosion Science, 111: 703-710. doi: 10.1016/j.corsci.2016.06.009
    Dao M H, Lou J. 2021. Simulations of laser assisted additive manufacturing by smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 373: 113491. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2020.113491
    Dapogny C, Estevez R, Faure R, Michailidis G. 2019. Shape and topology optimization considering anisotropic features induced by additive manufacturing processes. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 344: 626-665. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2018.09.036
    Denlinger E R, Gouge M, Irwin J, Michaleris P. 2017. Thermomechanical model development and in situ experimental validation of the Laser Powder-Bed Fusion process. Additive Manufacturing, 16: 73-80. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2017.05.001
    Echeta I, Feng X, Dutton B, et al. 2020. Review of defects in lattice structures manufactured by powder bed fusion. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 106: 2649. doi: 10.1007/s00170-019-04753-4
    Edwards P, Ramulu M. 2014. Fatigue performance evaluation of selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 598: 327-337. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2014.01.041
    Eshenauer H A, Olhoff N. 2001. Topology optimization of continuum structures: A review. Applied Mechanics Reviews, 54: 331-390. doi: 10.1115/1.1388075
    Calignano F. 2018. Investigation of the accuracy and roughness in the laser powder bed fusion process. Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 13: 97-104. doi: 10.1080/17452759.2018.1426368
    Fallah V, Amoorezaei M, Provatas N, Corbin S F, Khajepour A. 2012. Phase-field simulation of solidification morphology in laser powder deposition of Ti-Nb alloys. Acta Materialia, 60: 1633-1646. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2011.12.009
    Formanoir D C, Suard M, Dendievel R, et al. 2016. Improving the mechanical efficiency of electron beam melted titanium lattice structures by chemical etching. Additive Manufacturing, 11: 71-76. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2016.05.001
    Gan Z, Lian Y, Lin S E. 2019. Benchmark study of thermal behavior, surface topography, and dendritic microstructure in selective laser melting of Inconel 625. Integrating Materials and Manufacturing Innovation, 8: 178-193. doi: 10.1007/s40192-019-00130-x
    Gandin C A, Rappaz M. 1997. A 3D cellular automaton algorithm for the prediction of dendritic grain growth. Acta Materialia, 45: 2187-2195. doi: 10.1016/S1359-6454(96)00303-5
    Gao J, Luo Z, Li H, Gao L. 2019a. Topology optimization for multiscale design of porous composites with multi-domain microstructures. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 344: 451-476. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2018.10.017
    Gao J, Luo Z, Li H, Li P, Gao L. 2019b. Dynamic multiscale topology optimization for multi-regional micro-structured cellular composites. Composite Structures, 211: 401-417. doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.12.031
    Gao J, Luo Z, Xia L, Gao L. 2019c. Concurrent topology optimization of multiscale composite structures in Matlab. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 60: 2621-2651. doi: 10.1007/s00158-019-02323-6
    Gaynor A T, Guest J K. 2016. Topology optimization considering overhang constraints: Eliminating sacrificial support material in additive manufacturing through design. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 54: 1157-72. doi: 10.1007/s00158-016-1551-x
    Ge P, Zhang Z, Tan Z J, Hu C P, Zhao G Z, Guo X. 2019. An integrated modeling of process-structure-property relationship in laser additive manufacturing of duplex titanium alloy. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 140: 329-343. doi: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2019.03.013
    Geng L C, Ruan X L, Wu W W, et al. 2019a. Mechanical properties of selective laser sintering (SLS) additive manufactured chiral auxetic cylindrical stent. Experimental Mechanics, 59: 913-925. doi: 10.1007/s11340-019-00489-0
    Geng L, Wu W, Sun L, et al. 2019b. Damage characterizations and simulation of selective laser melting fabricated 3D re-entrant lattices based on in-situ CT testing and geometric reconstruction. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 157-158: 231-242. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2019.04.054
    Gong X, Chou K. 2015. Phase-field modeling of microstructure evolution in electron beam additive manufacturing. JOM Journal of the Minerals Metals and Materials Society, 67: 1176-1182. doi: 10.1007/s11837-015-1352-5
    Guest J K. 2009. Imposing maximum length scale in topology optimization. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 37: 463-473. doi: 10.1007/s00158-008-0250-7
    Guo H, Takezawa A, Honda M, et al. 2020. Finite element simulation of the compressive response of additively manufactured lattice structures with large diameters. Computational Materials Science, 175: 109610. doi: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2020.109610
    Guo X, Cheng G D. 2010. Recent development in structural design and optimization. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 26: 807-823. doi: 10.1007/s10409-010-0395-7
    Guo X, Zhang W, Zhong W. 2014. Explicit feature control in structural topology optimization via level set method. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 272: 354-378. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2014.01.010
    Guo X, Zhou J, Zhang W, Du Z, Liu C, Liu Y. 2017. Self-supporting structure design in additive manufacturing through explicit topology optimization. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 323: 27-63. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2017.05.003
    Hanks B, Berthel J, Frecker M, et al. 2020. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured metal lattice structures: Data review and design interface. Additive Manufacturing, 35: 101301. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101301
    Hashemi S M, Parvizi S, Baghbanijavid H, Tan A T L, et al. 2021. Computational modelling of process-structure-property-performance relationships in metal additive manufacturing: A review. International Materials Reviews, DOI: 10.1080/09506608.2020.1868889
    He X, Wang T, Wang X, et al. 2019. Fatigue behavior of direct laser deposited Ti-6.5Al-2Zr-1Mo-1V titanium alloy and its life distribution model. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 31: 2124-2135.
    He Z Z, Wang F C, Zhu Y B, et al. 2017. Mechanical properties of copper octet-truss nanolattices. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 101: 133-149. doi: 10.1016/j.jmps.2017.01.019
    Herriott C, Li X, Kouraytem N, Tari V, Tan W, et al. 2019. A multi-scale, multi-physics modeling framework to predict spatial variation of properties in additive-manufactured metals. Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 27: 025009. doi: 10.1088/1361-651X/aaf753
    Hu R, Chen X, Yang G, Gong S, Pang S. 2018. Metal transfer in wire feeding-based electron beam 3D printing: Modes, dynamics, and transition criterion. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 126: 877-887. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.06.033
    Hu Y N, Wu S C, Wu Z K, et al. 2020. A new approach to correlate the defect population with the fatigue life of selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy. International Journal of Fatigue, 136: 105584. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2020.105584
    Huang H, Ma N, Chen J, Feng Z, Murakawa H. 2020. Toward large-scale simulation of residual stress and distortion in wire and arc additive manufacturing. Additive Manufacturing, 34: 101248. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101248
    Huang X, Xie Y M. 2008. Optimal design of periodic structures using evolutionary topology optimization. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 36: 597-606. doi: 10.1007/s00158-007-0196-1
    Huang X, Zhou S W, Xie Y M, Li Q. 2013. Topology optimization of microstructures of cellular materials and composites for macrostructures. Computational Materials Science, 67: 397-407. doi: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2012.09.018
    Jia H, Lei H, Wang P, et al. 2020. An experimental and numerical investigation of compressive response of designed Schwarz Primitive triply periodic minimal surface with non-uniform shell thickness. Extreme Mechanics Letters, 37: 100671. doi: 10.1016/j.eml.2020.100671
    Jones D R, Fensin S J, Dippo O, et al. 2016. Spall fracture in additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V. Journal of Applied Physics, 120: 135902. doi: 10.1063/1.4963279
    Khairallah S A, Anderson A T, Rubenchik A, King W E. 2016. Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones. Acta Materialia, 108: 36-45. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2016.02.014
    Khairallah S A, Anderson A. 2014. Mesoscopic simulation model of selective laser melting of stainless steel powder. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 214: 2627-2636. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.06.001
    Khairallah S A, Martin A A, Lee J R I, Guss G, et al. 2020. Controlling interdependent meso-nanosecond dynamics and defect generation in metal 3D printing. Science, 368: 660-665. doi: 10.1126/science.aay7830
    Korner C, Attar E, Heinl P. 2011. Mesoscopic simulation of selective beam melting processes. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 211: 978-987. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2010.12.016
    Korner C, Markl M, Koepf J A. 2020. Modeling and simulation of microstructure evolution for additive manufacturing of metals: A critical review. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 51: 4970-4983. doi: 10.1007/s11661-020-05946-3
    Kurz W. Fisher D J. 1981. Dendrite growth at the limit of stability: Tip radius and spacing. Acta Materialia, 29: 11-20. doi: 10.1016/0001-6160(81)90082-1
    Langelaar M. 2016. Topology optimization of 3D self-supporting structures for additive manufacturing. Additive Manufacturing, 12: 60-70. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2016.06.010
    Laurencon M, Resseguier T, Loison D, et al. 2019. Effects of additive manufacturing on the dynamic response of AlSi10Mg to laser shock loading. Materials Science and Engineering A, 748: 407-417. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2019.02.001
    Latture R M, Begley M R, Zok F W. 2019. Defect sensitivity of truss strength. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 124: 489-504. doi: 10.1016/j.jmps.2018.10.019
    Le V-D, Pessard E, Morel F, et al. 2019. Interpretation of the fatigue anisotropy of additively manufactured TA6V alloys via a fracture mechanics approach. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 214: 410-426. doi: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2019.03.048
    Le V-D, Pessard E, Morel F, et al. 2020. Fatigue behaviour of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloy: The role of defects on scatter and statistical size effect. International Journal of Fatigue, 140: 105811. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2020.105811
    Lee Y S, Zhang W. 2016. Modeling of heat transfer, fluid flow and solidification microstructure of Nickel-base superalloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion. Additive Manufacturing, 12: 178-188. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2016.05.003
    Lei H, Li C, Zhang X, et al. 2020. Deformation behavior of heterogeneous multi-morphology lattice core hybrid structures. Additive Manufacturing, 37: 101674.
    Leuders S, Thöne M, Riemer A, et al. 2013. On the mechanical behaviour of titanium alloy TiAl6V4 manufactured by selective laser melting: Fatigue resistance and crack growth performance. International Journal of Fatigue, 48: 300-307. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2012.11.011
    Lhuissier P, Bataillon X, Maestre C, et al. 2020. In situ 3D X-ray microtomography of laser-based powder-bed fusion (L-PBF)—A feasibility study. Additive Manufacturing, 34: 101271. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101271
    Li H, Gao L, Li H, Li X, Tong H. 2021. Full-scale topology optimization for fiber-reinforced structures with continuous fiber paths. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 377: 113668. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2021.113668
    Li H, Gao L, Li H, Tong H. 2020. Spatial-varying multi-phase infill design using density-based topology optimization. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 372: 113354. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2020.113354
    Li H, Luo Z, Gao L, Walker P. 2018. Topology optimization for functionally graded cellular composites with metamaterials by level sets. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 328: 340-64. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2017.09.008
    Li H, Luo Z, Zhang N, Gao L, Brown T. 2016. Integrated design of cellular composites using a level-set topology optimization method. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 309: 453-75. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.06.012
    Li P, Wang Z, Petrinic N, et al. 2014. Deformation behavior of stainless steel microlattice structures by selective laser melting. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 614: 116-121. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2014.07.015
    Li P. 2015. Constitutive and failure behavior in selective laser melted stainless steel for microlattice structures. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 622: 114-120. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2014.11.028
    Li S, Yuan S, Zhu J, Wang C, Li J, Zhang W. 2020. Additive manufacturing-driven design optimization: Building direction and structural topology. Additive Manufacturing, 36: 101406. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101406
    Lian Y, Gan Z, Yu C, Kats D, Liu W K, Wagner G J. 2019. A cellular automaton finite volume method for microstructure evolution during additive manufacturing. Materials and Design, 169: 107672. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2019.107672
    Lian Y, Lin S, Yan W, Liu W K, Wager J W. 2018. A parallelized three-dimensional cellular automaton model for grain growth during additive manufacturing. Computational Mechanics, 61: 543-558. doi: 10.1007/s00466-017-1535-8
    Liu C, Du Z, Zhu Y, Zhang W, Zhang X, Guo X. 2020. Optimal design of shell-graded-infill structures by a hybrid MMC-MMV approach. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 369: 113187. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2020.113187
    Liu H, Zong H, Shi T, Xia Q. 2020. M-VCUT level set method for optimizing cellular structures. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 367: 113154. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2020.113154
    Liu J, To A C. 2017. Deposition path planning-integrated structural topology optimization for 3D additive manufacturing subject to self-support constraint. Computer-Aided Design, 91: 27-45. doi: 10.1016/j.cad.2017.05.003
    Liu J, Yu H. 2020. Self-support topology optimization with horizontal overhangs. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 142: 091003. doi: 10.1115/1.4047352
    Liu J. 2019. Piecewise length scale control for topology optimization with an irregular design domain. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 351: 744-765. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2019.04.014
    Liu L, Kamm P, García-Moreno F, et al. 2017. Elastic and failure response of imperfect three-dimensional metallic lattices: The role of geometric defects induced by Selective Laser Melting. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 107: 160-184. doi: 10.1016/j.jmps.2017.07.003
    Liu L, Yan J, Cheng G. 2008. Optimum structure with homogeneous optimum truss-like material. Computers & Structures, 86: 1417-25.
    Liu P W, Wang Z, Xiao Y H, Lebensohn R A, et al. 2020. Integration of phase-field model and crystal plasticity for the prediction of process-structure-property relation of additively manufactured metallic materials. International Journal of Plasticity, 128: 102670. doi: 10.1016/j.ijplas.2020.102670
    Liu S, Li Q, Chen W, Tong L, Cheng G. 2015. An identification method for enclosed voids restriction in manufacturability design for additive manufacturing structures. Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 10: 126-137. doi: 10.1007/s11465-015-0340-3
    Liu X, Wada T, Suzuki A, et al. 2021. Understanding and suppressing shear band formation in strut-based lattice structures manufactured by laser powder bed fusion. Materials & Design, 199: 109416.
    Liu Z, Liu P, Lu W, Lu Y, Qing Z-X, Wang H-M. 2018. Fatigue properties of Ti-6.5Al-3.5Mo-1.5Zr-0.3Si alloy produced by direct laser deposition. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 716: 140-149. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2018.01.016
    Lou R, Li H, Zhong J, Zhang C, Fang D. 2021. A transient updated Lagrangian finite element formulation for bond formation in fused deposition modeling process. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 152: 104450. doi: 10.1016/j.jmps.2021.104450
    Lozanovski B, Downing D, Tino R, et al. 2020a. Non-destructive simulation of node defects in additively manufactured lattice structures. Additive Manufacturing, 36: 101593. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101593
    Lozanovski B, Downing D, Tino R, et al. 2021. Image-based geometrical characterization of nodes in additively manufactured lattice structures. 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, 8: 51-68. doi: 10.1089/3dp.2020.0091
    Lozanovski B, Downing D, Tran P, et al. 2020b. A Monte Carlo simulation-based approach to realistic modelling of additively manufactured lattice structures. Additive Manufacturing, 32: 101092. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101092
    Luo Y W, Zhang B, Feng X, et al. 2021. Pore-affected fatigue life scattering and prediction of additively manufactured Inconel 718: An investigation based on miniature specimen testing and machine learning approach. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 802: 140693. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2020.140693
    Luo Y, Sigmund O, Li Q, Liu S. 2020. Additive manufacturing oriented topology optimization of structures with self-supported enclosed voids. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 372: 113385. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2020.113385
    McDowell D L, Gall K, Horstemeyer M F, et al. 2003. Microstructure-based fatigue modeling of cast A356-T6 alloy. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 70: 49-80. doi: 10.1016/S0013-7944(02)00021-8
    Melancon D, Bagheri Z S, Johnston R B, et al. 2017. Mechanical characterization of structurally porous biomaterials built via additive manufacturing: experiments, predictive models, and design maps for load-bearing bone replacement implants. Acta Biomaterialia, 63: 350-368. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.09.013
    Mirzendehdel A M, Rankouhi B, Suresh K. 2018. Strength-based topology optimization for anisotropic parts. Additive Manufacturing, 19: 104-113. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2017.11.007
    Molaei, R., Fatemi, A., Sanaei, N., et al. 2020. Fatigue of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V, Part II: The relationship between microstructure, material cyclic properties, and component performance. International Journal of Fatigue, 132: 105363. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2019.105363
    Moustafa A R, Dinwiddie R B, Pawlowski A E, et al. 2018. Mesostructure and porosity effects on the thermal conductivity of additively manufactured interpenetrating phase composites. Additive Manufacturing, 22: 223-229. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.05.018
    Murakami Y. 2019. 18-Additive manufacturing: effects of defects //Murakami Y. Metal Fatigue (Second Edition). Academic Press, P453-483
    Nurel B, Nahmany M, Frage N, et al. 2018. Split Hopkinson pressure bar tests for investigating dynamic properties of additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy by selective laser melting. Additive Manufacturing, 22: 823-833. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.06.001
    Olakanmi E O, Cochrane R F, Dalgarno K W. 2015. A review on selective laser sintering/melting (SLS/SLM) of aluminium alloy powders: Processing, microstructure, and properties. Progress in Materials Science, 74: 401-477. doi: 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2015.03.002
    Ou W, Mukherjee T, Knapp G L, Wei Y, DebRoy T. 2018. Fusion zone geometries, cooling rates and solidification parameters during wire arc additive manufacturing. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 127: 1084-1094. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.08.111
    Ozdemir Z, Hernandez-Nava E, Tyas A, et al. 2016. Energy absorption in lattice structures in dynamics: Experiments. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 89: 49-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2015.10.007
    Ozturk T, Rollett A D. 2018. Effect of microstructure on the elasto-viscoplastic deformation of dual phase titanium structures. Computational Mechanics, 61: 55-70. doi: 10.1007/s00466-017-1467-3
    Park J, Kangaroo J-H, Oh C-S. 2020. Phase-field simulations and microstructural analysis of epitaxial growth during rapid solidification of additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy. Materials and Design, 195: 108985. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2020.108985
    Poulsen T A. 2003. A new scheme for imposing a minimum length scale in topology optimization. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 57: 741-760. doi: 10.1002/nme.694
    Qian X. 2017. Undercut and overhang angle control in topology optimization: A density gradient based integral approach. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 111: 247-272. doi: 10.1002/nme.5461
    Qiu W, Jin P, Jin S, Wang C, Xia L, Zhu J, Shi T. 2020. An evolutionary design approach to shell-infill structures. Additive Manufacturing, 34: 101382. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101382
    Radman A, Huang X, Xie Y M. 2012. Topology optimization of functionally graded cellular materials. Journal of Materials Science, 48: 1503-1510.
    Rappaz M, Gandin C A. 1993. Probabilistic modelling of microstructure formation in solidification processes. Acta metal Material, 41: 345-360. doi: 10.1016/0956-7151(93)90065-Z
    Razavi M, Berto F. 2019. Directed energy deposition versus wrought Ti-6Al-4V: A comparison of microstructure, fatigue behavior, and notch sensitivity. Advanced Engineering Materials, 21: 1900220. doi: 10.1002/adem.201900220
    Rigon D, Meneghetti G. 2020. An engineering estimation of fatigue thresholds from a microstructural size and Vickers hardness: application to wrought and additively manufactured metals. International Journal of Fatigue, 139: 105796. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2020.105796
    Rodgers T M, Madison J D, Tikare V. 2017. Simulation of metal additive manufacturing microstructure using kinetic Monte Carlo. Computational Materials Science, 135: 78-89. doi: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2017.03.053
    Rodgers T M, Moser D, Abdeljawad F, Jackson O D U, et al. 2021. Simulation of powder bed metal additive manufacturing microstructures with coupled finite difference-Monte Carlo method. Additive Manufacturing, 41: 101953. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.101953
    Rodrigues H, Guedes J M, Bendsoe M P. 2002. Hierarchical optimization of material and structure. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 24: 1-10. doi: 10.1007/s00158-002-0209-z
    Romano S, Brandão A, Gumpinger J, et al. 2017. Qualification of AM parts: Extreme value statistics applied to tomographic measurements. Materials & Design, 131: 32-48.
    Ruiz D G S, Jeffers J R T, Ghouse S. 2020. A validated finite element analysis procedure for porous structures. Materials & Design, 189: 108546.
    Russell M A, Souto-Iglesias A, Zohdi T I. 2018. Numerical simulation of laser fusion additive manufacturing processes using the SPH method. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 341: 163-187. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2018.06.033
    Sanaei N, Fatemi A. 2021. Defects in additive manufactured metals and their effect on fatigue performance: A state-of-the-art review. Progress in Materials Science, 117: 100724. doi: 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100724
    Sheridan L, Gockel J E, Scott-Emuakpor O E. 2021. Stress-defect-life interactions of fatigued additively manufactured alloy 718. International Journal of Fatigue, 143: 106033. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2020.106033
    Sigmund O. 2007. Morphology-based black and white filters for topology optimization. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 33: 401-424. doi: 10.1007/s00158-006-0087-x
    Sing S L, Yeong W Y, Wiria F E. 2016. Selective laser melting of titanium alloy with 50 wt% tantalum: Microstructure and mechanical properties. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 660: 461-470. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.11.141
    Sivapuram R, Dunning P D, Kim H A. 2016. Simultaneous material and structural optimization by multiscale topology optimization. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 54: 1267-1281. doi: 10.1007/s00158-016-1519-x
    Smith T R, Sugar J D, Schoenung J M, et al. 2019. Relationship between manufacturing defects and fatigue properties of additive manufactured austenitic stainless steel. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 765: 138268. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2019.138268
    Sterling A J, Torries B, Shamsaei N, et al. 2016. Fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of direct laser deposited Ti-6Al-4V. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 655: 100-112. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2015.12.026
    Suard M, Lhuissier P, Dendievel R, et al. 2014. Towards stiffness prediction of cellular structures made by electron beam melting (EBM). Powder Metallurgy, 57: 190-195. doi: 10.1179/1743290114Y.0000000093
    Suard M, Martin G, Lhuissier P, et al. 2015. Mechanical equivalent diameter of single struts for the stiffness prediction of lattice structures produced by Electron Beam Melting. Additive Manufacturing, 8: 124-131. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2015.10.002
    Suard M, Plancher E, Martin G, et al. 2020. Surface defects sensitivity during the unfolding of corrugated struts made by powder-bed additive manufacturing. Advanced Engineering Materials, 22: 2000315. doi: 10.1002/adem.202000315
    Takezawa A, To A C, Chen Q, Liang X, Dugast F, Zhang X, Kitamura M. 2020. Sensitivity analysis and lattice density optimization for sequential inherent strain method used in additive manufacturing process. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 370: 113231. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2020.113231
    Tan J H K, Sing S L, Yeoong W Y. 2020. Microstructure modeling for metallic additive manufacturing: A review. Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 15: 87-105. doi: 10.1080/17452759.2019.1677345
    Tian Y, Gora W S, Cabo A P, et al. 2018. Material interactions in laser polishing powder bed additive manufactured Ti6Al4V components. Additive Manufacturing, 20: 11-22. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2017.12.010
    Torries B, Sterling A J, Shamsaei N, et al. 2016. Utilization of a microstructure sensitive fatigue model for additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V. Rapid Prototyping Journal, 22: 817-825. doi: 10.1108/RPJ-11-2015-0168
    Wan H, Wang Q, Jia C, et al. 2016. Multi-scale damage mechanics method for fatigue life prediction of additive manufacture structures of Ti-6Al-4V. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 669: 269-278. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2016.05.073
    Wang H, Liao H, Fan Z, Fan J, Stainier L, Li X, Li B. 2020. The Hot Optimal Transportation Meshfree (HOTM) method for materials under extreme dynamic thermomechanical conditions. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 364: 112958. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2020.112958
    Wang P, Lei H, Zhu X, et al. 2019. Influence of manufacturing geometric defects on the mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg alloy fabricated by selective laser melting. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 789: 852-859. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.03.135
    Wang P, Zhou H, Zhang L, et al. 2020. In situ X-ray micro-computed tomography study of the damage evolution of prefabricated through-holes in SLM-Printed AlSi10Mg alloy under tension. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 821: 153576. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.153576
    Wang S, Zhu L, Dun Y. Yang Z, His Fuh J Y, Yan W. 2021. Multi-physics modeling of direct energy deposition process of thin-walled structures: Defect analysis. Computational Mechanics, 67: 1229-1242. doi: 10.1007/s00466-021-01992-9
    Wang T, He X, Wang J, et al. 2021. Detail fatigue rating method based on bimodal weibull distribution for DED Ti-6.5Al-2Zr-1Mo-1V titanium alloy. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 40: 1-13.
    Wang X, He X, Wang T, et al. 2019. Internal pores in DED Ti-6.5Al-2Zr-Mo-V alloy and their influence on crack initiation and fatigue life in the mid-life regime. Additive Manufacturing, 28: 373-393. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.05.007
    Wang Y, Chen F, Wang M Y. 2017. Concurrent design with connectable graded microstructures. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 317: 84-101. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.12.007
    Wang Y, Gao J, Kang Z. 2018. Level set-based topology optimization with overhang constraint: Towards support-free additive manufacturing. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 339: 591-614. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2018.04.040
    Wang Y, Wang M Y, Chen F. 2016a. Structure-material integrated design by level sets. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 54: 1145-1156. doi: 10.1007/s00158-016-1430-5
    Wang Y, Zhang L, Wang M Y. 2016b. Length scale control for structural optimization by level sets. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 305: 891-909. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.03.037
    Wang Z, Yan W, Liu W K, Liu M. 2019. Powder-scale multi-physics modeling of multi-layer multi-track selective laser melting with sharp interface capturing method. Computational Mechanics, 63: 649-661. doi: 10.1007/s00466-018-1614-5
    Wei H L, Knapp G L, Mukherjee T, DebRoy T. 2019. Three-dimensional grain growth during multi-layer printing of a nickel based alloy Inconel 718. Additive Manufacturing, 25: 448-459. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.11.028
    Wei H L, Mukherjee T, Zhang W, Zuback J S, Knapp G L, De A, DebRoy T. 2021. Mechanistic models for additive manufacturing of metallic components. Progress in Materials Science, 116: 100703. doi: 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2020.100703
    Wessels H, Bode T, Weibenfels C, Wriggers P, Zohdi T I. 2019. Investigation of heat source modeling for selective laser melting. Computational Mechanics, 63: 949-970. doi: 10.1007/s00466-018-1631-4
    Wu J, Clausen A, Sigmund O. 2017. Minimum compliance topology optimization of shell-infill composites for additive manufacturing. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 326: 358-375. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2017.08.018
    Wu J, Aage N, Westermann R, Sigmund O. 2018. Infill optimization for additive manufacturing—Approaching bone-like porous structures. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph, 24: 1127-1140. doi: 10.1109/TVCG.2017.2655523
    Wu J, Wang W, Gao X. 2021. Design and optimization of conforming lattice structures. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph, 27: 43-56. doi: 10.1109/TVCG.2019.2938946
    Wu Z, Wu S, Bao J, et al. 2021. The effect of defect population on the anisotropic fatigue resistance of AlSi10Mg alloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion. International Journal of Fatigue, 151: 106317. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2021.106317
    Wu Z, Xia L, Wang S, Shi T. 2019. Topology optimization of hierarchical lattice structures with substructuring. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 345: 602-617. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2018.11.003
    Xia L, Breitkopf P. 2014. Concurrent topology optimization design of material and structure within FE2 nonlinear multiscale analysis framework. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 278: 524-542. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2014.05.022
    Xiao M, Liu X, Zhang Y, Gao L, Gao J, Chu S. 2021. Design of graded lattice sandwich structures by multiscale topology optimization. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 384: 113949. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2021.113949
    Xie C, Wu S, Yu Y, et al. 2021. Defect-correlated fatigue resistance of additively manufactured Al-Mg4.5Mn alloy with in situ micro-rolling. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 291: 117039. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2020.117039
    Xin H, Correia J A F O, Veljkovic M, et al. 2021. Probabilistic strain-fatigue life performance based on stochastic analysis of structural and WAAM-stainless steels. Engineering Failure Analysis, 127: 105495. doi: 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2021.105495
    Xiong F, Huang C, Kafka O L, Lian Y, Yan W, Chen M, Fang D. 2021. Grain growth prediction in selective electron beam melting of Ti-6Al-4V with a cellular automaton method. Materials & Design, 199: 109410.
    Xiong Y, Yao S, Zhao Z L, Xie Y M. 2020. A new approach to eliminating enclosed voids in topology optimization for additive manufacturing. Additive Manufacturing, 32: 101006. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.101006
    Xu T, Cui Y, Ma S, Wang J, Liu C. 2021. Exploring the inclined angle limit of fabricating unsupported rods structures by pulse hot-wire arc additive manufacturing. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 295: 117160. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2021.117160
    Xue Y, Pascu A, Horstemeyer M F, et al. 2010. Microporosity effects on cyclic plasticity and fatigue of LENSTM-processed steel. Acta Materialia, 58: 4029-4038. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2010.03.014
    Xue L, Xiao J, Nie Z, et al. 2021. Dynamic response of Ti-6.5Al-1Mo-1V-2Zr-0.1B alloy fabricated by wire arc additive manufacturing. Materials Science & Engineering A, 800: 140310.
    Yadollahi A, Mahtabi M J, Khalili A, et al. 2018. Fatigue life prediction of additively manufactured material: Effects of surface roughness, defect size, and shape. Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, 41: 1602-1614.
    Yan S, Huang Y, Zhao D, Niu F, Ma G, Wu D. 2019. 3D printing of nano-scale Al2O3-ZrO2 eutectic ceramic: Principle analysis and process optimization of pores. Additive Manufacturing, 28: 120-126. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.04.024
    Yan W, Lian Y, Yu C, Kafka O L, Liu Z, Liu W K, Wagner G J. 2018a. An integrated process-structure-property modeling framework for additive manufacturing. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 339: 184-204. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2018.05.004
    Yan W, Qian Y, Ge W, Lin S. Liu W K, Lin F, Wagner G J. 2018b. Meso-scale modeling of multiple-layer fabrication process in selective electron beam melting: Inter-layer/track voids formation. Materials and Design, 141: 210-219. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2017.12.031
    Yang M, Wang L, Yan W. 2021. Phase-field modeling of grain evolutions in additive manufacturing from nucleation, growth, to coarsening. Npj Computational Materials, 7: 56. doi: 10.1038/s41524-021-00524-6
    Zaretsky E, Stern A, Frage N. 2017. Dynamic response of AlSi10Mg alloy fabricated by selective laser melting. Materials Science and Engineering A, 688: 364-370. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2017.02.004
    Zhan Z, Li H. 2021. Machine learning based fatigue life prediction with effects of additive manufacturing process parameters for printed SS 316L. International Journal of Fatigue, 142: 105941. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2020.105941
    Zhang H, Wang Y, Kang Z. 2019. Topology optimization for concurrent design of layer-wise graded lattice materials and structures. International Journal of Engineering Science, 138: 26-49. doi: 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2019.01.006
    Zhang Q, Xie J, London T, et al. 2019. Estimates of the mechanical properties of laser powder bed fusion Ti-6Al-4V parts using finite element models. Materials & Design, 169: 107678.
    Zhang W, Li D, Zhang J, Guo X. 2016. Minimum length scale control in structural topology optimization based on the Moving Morphable Components (MMC) approach. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 311: 327-55. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.08.022
    Zhang W, Sun S. 2006. Scale-related topology optimization of cellular materials and structures. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 68: 993-1011. doi: 10.1002/nme.1743
    Zhang W, Zhou L. 2018. Topology optimization of self-supporting structures with polygon features for additive manufacturing. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 334: 56-78. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2018.01.037
    Zhang Z D, Ibhadode O, Ali U, Dibia C F, Rahnama P, Bonakdar A, Toyserkani E. 2020. Topology optimization parallel-computing framework based on the inherent strain method for support structure design in laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing. International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design, 16: 897-92. doi: 10.1007/s10999-020-09494-x
    Zhao S, Yuan K, Guo W, et al. 2020. A comparative study of laser metal deposited and forged Ti-6Al-4V alloy: Uniaxial mechanical response and vibration fatigue properties. International Journal of Fatigue, 136: 105629. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2020.105629
    Zheng M, Wei L, Chen J, et al. 2019. A novel method for the molten pool and porosity formation modeling in selective laser melting. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 140: 1091-1105. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.06.038
    Zhou M, Lazarov B S, Wang F, Sigmund O. 2015. Minimum length scale in topology optimization by geometric constraints. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 293: 266-282. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2015.05.003
    Zhou Y, Nomura T, Saitou K. 2019. Multicomponent topology optimization for additive manufacturing with build volume and cavity free constraints. Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 19: 021011. doi: 10.1115/1.4042640
    Zhu J, Zhou H, Wang C, Zhou L, Yuan S, Zhang W. 2021. A review of topology optimization for additive manufacturing: Status and challenges. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 34: 91-110.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索


    Article Metrics

    Article views (6488) PDF downloads(1251) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint