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旋涡空化水动力学特性研究进展与展望

程怀玉 季斌 龙新平 彭晓星

程怀玉, 季斌, 龙新平, 彭晓星. 旋涡空化水动力学特性研究进展与展望. 力学进展, 2024, 54(1): 86-137 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-045
引用本文: 程怀玉, 季斌, 龙新平, 彭晓星. 旋涡空化水动力学特性研究进展与展望. 力学进展, 2024, 54(1): 86-137 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-045
Cheng H Y, Ji B, Long X P, Peng X X. Research progresses and prospects of vortex cavitation dynamics. Advances in Mechanics, 2024, 54(1): 86-137 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-045
Citation: Cheng H Y, Ji B, Long X P, Peng X X. Research progresses and prospects of vortex cavitation dynamics. Advances in Mechanics, 2024, 54(1): 86-137 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-045

旋涡空化水动力学特性研究进展与展望

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-045
基金项目: 衷心感谢北京理工大学王国玉教授、清华大学罗先武教授、瑞士洛桑联邦理工学院(EPFL) Mohamed Farhat教授在本论文研究和撰写过程中给予的指导和帮助. 国家重点研发计划(2022YFB3303501)和国家自然科学基金(52176041, 12102308, 11332009, 11772305)资助项目.
详细信息
    作者简介:

    季斌, 武汉大学教授、博士生导师, 主要从事水力机械/船舶海洋装备空化水动力学应用基础研究. 主持国家自然科学基金5项, 出版学术专著2部, 发表SCI论文105篇(第一/通讯作者65篇), 谷歌学术引用5828次, SCI他引3912次, 8篇论文入选ESI高被引论文, 1篇论文获评中国百篇最具影响国际学术论文, 1篇论文入选《国际多相流杂志》近10年被引次数最多的论文, 获省部级科研奖励4项, 入选爱思唯尔“中国高被引学者榜单” 、全球前2%顶尖科学家“年度影响力榜单”和“生涯影响力榜单” 、湖北省“楚天学者计划”. 现任《J Hydrodyn》等4个杂志编委, 湖北省力学学会理事等. 曾获国家优秀青年基金项目、湖北省杰出青年基金项目、周培源水动力学奖等

    通讯作者:

    jibin@whu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O352

Research progresses and prospects of vortex cavitation dynamics

More Information
  • 摘要: 涡空化作为一种在推进器叶顶涡心处产生的空化现象, 在推进器原型上往往最早出现, 其一旦发生将会严重影响舰艇的声隐身性能(噪声增加10 dB以上), 在很大程度上限制了舰艇临界航速的进一步提升, 因而长期以来一直是空化水动力学领域研究的重点与难点课题之一. 本文首先简要介绍了旋涡空化流动相较于其他形式空化流动的特点, 并以梢涡空化为主要对象, 系统阐述了旋涡空化初生、发展的演变行为与流动机理研究, 从空化三要素的角度深入讨论了其影响因素与作用机制. 在此基础上, 本文分别对旋涡空化流动中尺度效应、流动控制等关键问题的相关研究进展进行了回顾, 较为系统地梳理了旋涡空化尺度效应的内在原因以及旋涡空化流动控制方法与控制思路. 最后, 本文针对目前旋涡空化研究领域关注的重点与难点问题, 对旋涡空化流动研究中采用的实验测量及数值模拟技术进行了总结与展望.

     

  • 图  1  典型的绕舰船推进器及水翼旋涡空化流动. (a) 螺旋桨梢涡空化(Bosschers 2018b), (b) 椭圆翼梢涡空化(Dreyer 2015)

    图  2  典型的旋涡空化初生过程. (a) 一个游离气核在梢涡作用下的运动与生长过程(多时刻叠加), (b) 0.5 ms后的梢涡形态

    图  3  不同涡模型预报的切向速度分布与实验结果(Dreyer 2015)对比

    图  4  涡丝卷吸理论及基于水翼升力的旋涡环量预报结果. (a) 涡丝卷吸理论Franc和Michel (2005), (b) 基于水翼升力的旋涡环量预报结果对比(Xu et al. 2023)

    图  5  旋涡半径关系式预测得到的旋涡半径变化与实验、模拟值的对比(季斌等 2022)

    图  6  理想涡流场中游离气核的分布和运动(Chen et al. 2019). (a) 不同初始尺寸气核的初始分布, (b) 不同初始尺寸气核的运动轨迹和生长

    图  7  旋涡涡心处的轴向速度分布(Dreyer 2015)

    图  8  不同条件下旋涡空化的发展形态(Amini et al. 2019a). (a) 不同空化数下旋涡空化形态, (b) 不同雷诺数下旋涡空化形态, (c) 不同攻角下旋涡空化形态, (d) 不同含气率下旋涡空化形态

    图  9  不同空化涡模型切向速度分布与实验值(Dreyer 2015)的对比

    图  10  Amini等(2019a)建立的旋涡空化溶解气体扩散模型

    图  11  溶解气体扩散诱发的梢涡空化失稳现象(Nanda et al. 2022)

    图  12  绕椭圆翼的梢涡空化及其尺度效应 (Keller 2001)

    图  13  几种典型的梢涡空化抑制方法. (a) 涡心注质法(Chang et al. 2011), (b) 叶梢卸载法(辛公正 2014), (c) 异性叶梢法(Amini et al. 2019b), (d) 表面加粗法(Asnaghi et al. 2020), (e) 细绳干扰法(Lee et al. 2017b)

    表  1  各类针对旋涡空化修正的空化数对比

    代表性的空化数 优点 缺点
    第一类 $ {\sigma _{\text{0}}}{\text{ = }}\dfrac{{{p_\infty } - {p_v}}}{{0.5{\rho _l}U_\infty ^2}} $ 在片空化、云空化流动中应用十分广泛,
    得到了广泛的检验与认可
    无法反映旋涡旋转运动引起的压降
    以及气核的影响
    第二类 $ {\sigma _i} = {\text{ }}{k_{{\mathrm{s}}1}}{\left( {\dfrac{\varGamma }{{{r_{\mathrm{c}}}{U_\infty }}}} \right)^2} $ 反映了旋涡旋转运动引起的压降 没有反映水体中气核的影响
    第三类 $ {\sigma _i} = - {C_{{p_{\mathrm{s}}}}} + \dfrac{{{p_{\mathrm{g}}}}}{{1/2\rho U_\infty ^2}} $ 同时反映了旋涡旋转运动引起的压降
    以及气核的影响
    需要额外给出气核要素的定量评估方法
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  原始Zwart模型与几个典型的旋涡空化修正模型对比

    序号 模型名称 相间质量输运速率 与原模型的主要区别
    1 原始Zwart模型 $ \left. \begin{gathered} {{\dot m}^ + } = {C_{{\text{p0}}}}\frac{{3\left( {1 - {\alpha _{{v}}}} \right){\alpha _{{\text{nuc}}}}{\rho _{{v}}}}}{R}\sqrt {\frac{2}{3}\frac{{\left( {{p_v} - p} \right)}}{{{\rho _{\text{l}}}}}} ,p < {p_{{v}}} \\ {{\dot m}^ - } = {C_{{\text{d0}}}}\frac{{3{\alpha _{{v}}}{\rho _{{v}}}}}{R}\sqrt {\frac{2}{3}\frac{{\left( {p - {p_{{v}}}} \right)}}{{{\rho _{\text{l}}}}}} ,p > {p_{{v}}} \\ \end{gathered} \right\} $ /
    2 考虑旋涡环量的修正模型(Zhao et al. 2016) $ \left. \begin{gathered} {{\dot m}^ + } = {C_{\text{p}}}\frac{{2\pi }}{{\left| \varGamma \right|}}\frac{{(1 - {\alpha _v}){\rho _{{v}}}}}{{{\rho _l}}}\left| {p - {p_v}} \right|,p < {p_{{v}}} \\ {{\dot m}^ - } = {C_{\text{d}}}\frac{{2\pi }}{{\left| \varGamma \right|}} \cdot \frac{{{\alpha _v}{\rho _v}\left| {p - {p_v}} \right|}}{{{\rho _{\mathrm{l}}}}},p > {p_{{v}}} \\ \end{gathered} \right\} $ 考虑了旋涡对空化泡半径的影响, 并将其引入相间质量输运速率的计算
    3 基于涡识别的修正模型(Guo et al. 2018) $ \left. \begin{gathered} {{\dot m}^ + } = {C_{{\text{p0}}}}\frac{{3\left( {1 - {\alpha _{{v}}}} \right){\alpha _{{\text{nuc}}}}{\rho _{{v}}}}}{R}\sqrt {\frac{2}{3}\frac{{\left( {{p_v} - p} \right)}}{{{\rho _{\text{l}}}}}} ,p < {p_{{v}}} \\ {{\dot m}^ - } = {F_{\rm d}}{C_{{\text{d0}}}}\frac{{3{\alpha _{{v}}}{\rho _{\text{v}}}}}{R}\sqrt {\frac{2}{3}\frac{{\left( {p - {p_{{v}}}} \right)}}{{{\rho _{\text{l}}}}}} ,p > {p_{{v}}} \\ \end{gathered} \right\} $ 利用旋转因子对旋涡区域进行识别, 并对当地的凝结过程系数进行了针对性修正
    4 考虑气核效应的修正模型(Cheng et al. 2021) $ \left. \begin{gathered} {{\dot m}^ + } = {C_{{\text{p0}}}}\frac{{3\left( {1 - {\alpha _{{v}}}} \right){\alpha _{{\text{nuc}}}}{\rho _{{v}}}}}{R}\sqrt {\frac{2}{3}\frac{{\left( {{p_v} + {p_{\text{g}}} - p} \right)}}{{{\rho _{\text{l}}}}}} ,p < {p_{\rm b}} \\ {{\dot m}^ - } = {C_{{\text{d0}}}}\frac{{3{\alpha _{{v}}}{\rho _{{v}}}}}{R}\sqrt {\frac{2}{3}\frac{{\left( {p - {p_v} - {p_{\text{g}}}} \right)}}{{{\rho _{\text{l}}}}}} ,p > {p_{\rm b}} \\ \end{gathered} \right\} $ 考虑了气核不可凝结气体分压对当地空化的贡献, 其中气核的空间分布由DPM模块提供
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-11-01
  • 录用日期:  2024-01-22
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-01-27
  • 刊出日期:  2024-03-24

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