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面向EUV光源的实验流体力学研究进展

邓巍巍 翟天琪 高立豪 许晟昊 赵新彦 刘艳初

邓巍巍, 翟天琪, 高立豪, 许晟昊, 赵新彦, 刘艳初. 面向EUV光源的实验流体力学研究进展. 力学进展, 2024, 54(1): 1-35 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-044
引用本文: 邓巍巍, 翟天琪, 高立豪, 许晟昊, 赵新彦, 刘艳初. 面向EUV光源的实验流体力学研究进展. 力学进展, 2024, 54(1): 1-35 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-044
Deng W W, Zhai T Q, Gao L H, Xu C H, Zhao X Y, Liu Y C. Recent progress of experimental fluid mechanics for EUV sources. Advances in Mechanics, 2024, 54(1): 1-35 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-044
Citation: Deng W W, Zhai T Q, Gao L H, Xu C H, Zhao X Y, Liu Y C. Recent progress of experimental fluid mechanics for EUV sources. Advances in Mechanics, 2024, 54(1): 1-35 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-044

面向EUV光源的实验流体力学研究进展

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-044
基金项目: 本文工作得到国家自然科学基金 (12327803, 11932009) 和广东省基础与应用基础研究基金 (2022A1515110355) 的资助.
详细信息
    作者简介:

    邓巍巍, 南方科技大学教授, 长江学者特岗教授. 曾任美国弗吉尼亚理工大学长聘副教授, 获得美国NSF CAREER Award. 研究领域微尺度实验流体力学. 主持国家自然科学基金重点项目和专项项目, 发表SCI论文70余篇

    刘艳初, 南方科技大学研究助理教授. 2011—2019在华南理工大学分别获得学士和博士学位, 2019—2021年在南方科技大学博士后流动站工作. 研究方向是激光与流体靶的相互作用和流体靶的产生与调控. 主持省部级基金和博士后基金各一项. 研究成果发表在《Journal of Fluid Mechanics》和《Physical Review Fluids》等期刊上

    通讯作者:

    liuyc@sustech.edu.cn

Recent progress of experimental fluid mechanics for EUV sources

More Information
  • 摘要: EUV(极紫外)光源是EUV光刻机的核心部件, 其原理是基于纳秒脉冲激光轰击锡液滴靶产生的等离子体辐射发光. EUV光源本质是一种流体光源, 涉及丰富而复杂的流体力学基本问题, 跨越从皮秒到毫秒的四个特征时间尺度. 本文综述了面向EUV光源的实验流体力学研究进展. 首先根据靶的类型, 分别介绍了射流、液滴和液膜靶的生成与调控基本原理和技术路线. 之后对三种靶与激光相互作用过程的特征时刻与典型现象进行了梳理, 重点放在各个特征时间尺度内激光轰击液滴靶的研究进展, 总结了不同参数激光脉冲轰击后靶的推进、变形和破碎规律. 最后对EUV光源中值得重点关注的实验流体力学关键问题进行了总结和展望, 提出改善激光等离子体EUV光源稳定性、亮度和寿命需要从以下三方面持续开展研究: 高频率、小直径、长间距液滴靶串的精准生成和调控, 激光辐照产生等离子体的膨胀和辐射规律, 以及液滴靶变形破碎机理和碎屑抑制、收集及清洁技术.

     

  • 图  1  基于激光产生等离子体(LPP)的EUV光源的工作原理

    图  2  锡离子分布与电子温度的关系(Attwood & Sakdinawat 2017)

    图  3  (a) 射流长度(Hansson & Hertz 2004b), (b) 三种不同外加扰动频率下射流失稳时长度对比, 由上到下无量纲波数依次为: χ1=0.075, χ2=0.25, χ3=0.683. 其中χ3=0.683时最接近瑞利失稳 (Eggers & 2008)

    图  4  (a)锡液滴产生装置, (b)多液滴融合过程(Fomenkov 2017b), (c)锥形喷嘴和小收敛角喷嘴对液滴稳定性的提升对比(d) (Vinokhodov et al. 2016c)

    图  5  模态n =3、4和5时液滴合并的动力学过程(Driessen et al. 2014)

    图  6  (a)射流对冲形成的等厚液膜轮廓和(b)两射流对冲区域, (c)液膜厚度实验测量值与理论值的对比(Hasson & Peck 1964)

    图  7  收束狭缝喷嘴. (a)喷嘴组成部件, (b)平面设计及连接端口示意图(未显示紧固件), (c)组装完成后的装置照片, (d)装置顶部和笛卡尔坐标, (e)描述内部液体流向和微通道几何参数的示意图, (f)抛光喷嘴出口的光学显微照片(Ha et al. 2018)

    图  8  单色光干涉法测液膜厚度(Galinis et al. 2017)

    图  9  (a)微流控气动喷嘴装置, (b)气液喷嘴出口, 其中蓝色为液体通道, (c)液膜大小随气压增大的演化过程, (d)流体链形式的液膜交替正交结构(Koralek et al. 2018)

    图  10  (a)喷嘴表面微观形貌, (b)薄膜干涉仪测量液膜厚度, (c)沿液膜中心线的厚度变化, (d)无量纲化液膜厚度计算值和测量值对比, (e)白光干涉法测液膜厚度中不同波长光的强度分布(Crissman et al. 2022)

    图  11  激光轰击锡液滴靶示意图和几个特征时刻的现象(Klein et al. 2015)

    图  12  染料液滴与纳秒脉冲激光作用后的现象. (a) 脉冲能量24 mJ 时轰击早期空气中的激波和雾云发展, (b) 脉冲能量自下而上递增时液滴现象变化(Klein et al. 2015)

    图  13  镓铟合金液滴与不同脉宽激光脉冲作用后的现象. (a)纳秒脉冲(Vinokhodov et al. 2016c), (b)皮秒 ~ 飞秒脉冲(Vinokhodov et al. 2016d)

    图  14  (a) 激光轰击水滴后得到的四种不同的液滴破碎模态 (时间单位为μs): (i)雾化模态 (atomization), 液滴半径186 μm, 激光能量4.9 mJ; (ii)不稳定液膜模态 (unstable sheet), 液滴半径401 μm, 激光能量2.7 mJ, 黑色箭头指向液膜破碎形成的孔洞; (iii)稳定液膜模态 (stable stretched sheet), 液滴半径450 μm, 激光能量0.6 mJ; (iv)粗破裂模态 (coarse fragmentation), 液滴半径1419 μm, 激光能量2.2 mJ. (b) 水滴的不同破碎模态总结,横轴是动压与拉普拉斯压力之比, 纵轴是无量纲化气泡能量 (通过激光脉冲能量转化得到), 四种模态的标志分别是: 雾化模态 (◆), 稳定液膜模态(▲), 不稳定液膜模态 (●)和粗破裂模态 (■). (c) 激光轰击超声悬浮液滴后内部的空化气泡和激波: (i)实验现象, 侧视图, 激光能量2.2 mJ, (ii)模拟结果, 侧视图, (iii)模拟结果, 俯视图, (iv)激波传播过程中产生的压力最低的环形区域, 图中时间单位为μs (Gonzalez-Avila & Ohl 2016)

    图  15  (a)不同能量激光脉冲轰击Ga-In合金液滴后形成的激波轮廓, (b)轰击后释放到空气中的激波随时间的扩张.来自本文作者团队(Liu et al. 2021c)

    图  16  能量分布为高斯分布的激光光斑轰击液滴后, 液滴形变动能与总动能之比和光斑大小 (以高斯分布特征参数σ表示, σ越小, 光斑越小) 的关系. 模拟得到的σ = π/8 (i-iv)和σ = π/4 (v-viii)两种不同大小高斯光斑轰击液滴后的压力分布及液膜铺展情况: (i, v) 轰击后早期 (tτe) 液滴内部的等压线; (ii, vi) 液滴坐标系下的速度场(t/τc $ \ll $ We−1/2); (iii, vii)和(iv, viii)分别展示了在t/τc = 0.0021 (iii), 0.013 (iv), 0.021 (vii)和0.064 (viii)时的液膜形态. 蓝色虚线是理论分析解, 红色实线是模拟结果(Gelderblom等 2016)

    图  17  镓铟合金液滴与纳秒脉冲激光作用后的现象(Meijer et al. 2022a)

    图  18  镓铟合金液滴与纳秒脉冲激光作用后的现象. (a)液膜出现倾角(Reijers et al. 2018), (b)液膜厚度的测量(Liu et al. 2020), (c)激光气化液膜厚度测量法(Liu et al. 2021a)

    图  19  金属液滴与纳秒脉冲激光作用后的现象. (a)边缘径向喷射(Klein et al. 2020), (b)薄膜孔洞(Klein et al. 2020), (c) 网状筋条(Klein et al. 2020), (d)边缘液滴飞行(Liu et al. 2022)

    图  20  不同形状和密度靶的转换效率(Fomenkov et al. 2017a)

    图  21  金属液滴与皮秒脉冲激光作用后的现象. (a)皮秒激光脉冲轰击60 μm直径液滴(Basko et al. 2017), (b)不同功率密度下液滴变形的侧方视图(Grigoryev et al. 2018), (c)后方视图(Grigoryev et al. 2018)

    图  22  (a) 激光轰击射流靶等离子体产生装置(Hansson & Hertz 2004b), (b)氙射流和(c)激光轰击氙射流产生的等离子体(Tamotsu Abe et al. 2016), (d) 收集板上碎屑的扫描电子显微镜图像(Hansson & Hertz 2004b)

    图  23  (a) XFEL轰击射流后产生的间隙、液膜及其演变, (b)间隙扩张的三个阶段, (c)纳秒脉冲激光轰击射流后所形成间隙的发展过程, 依然遵循对数规律(Stan et al. 2016b, Gao et al. 2022)

    图  24  被耦合进射流传播的激光脉冲对喷口进行加热, 通过局部暴沸驱动产生的液膜及其发展过程. (a)轰击后液膜出现并经历快速铺展, 之后在表面张力的支配下, 液膜开始收缩, 全程可见液膜边缘失稳形成的指状破碎现象, (b)不锈钢喷口表面被使用前 (左) 和激光轰击射流20000次后 (右) 的对比(Gao et al. 2022)

    图  25  高功率密度(1018 W/cm2)激光脉冲轰击液膜靶的实验现象(George et al. 2019)

    表  1  文献中液滴靶产生装置的工作参数

    作者 材质 直径(D)/μm 频率/kHz 速度/(m·s−1) 间距(μm) 间距/直径
    Richardson等 (2004) ~ 35 100 200 ~ 115 ~ 3
    Mizoguchi等 (2010) 60 10 ~ 140 60 72 1.2
    Rollinger等 (2011) 35 ~ 58 20 ~ 100 8 ~ 12 280 ~ 464 8
    Vinokhodov等 (2016d) 锡-铟 30 ~ 90 20 ~ 150 4 ~ 15 180 2 ~ 6
    Kawasuji等 (2017) 20 50 ~ 100 45 ~ 90 >900 >45
    Luo等 (2023) 53 ~ 84 >15 10 ~ 15 378 ~ 798 9 ~ 19
    ASML 16 ~ 140(27) >80 323 ~ 1500 56
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-10-30
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