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热力学强度理论

王彪

王彪. 热力学强度理论. 力学进展, 2023, 53(3): 693-712 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-017
引用本文: 王彪. 热力学强度理论. 力学进展, 2023, 53(3): 693-712 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-017
Wang B. Thermodynamic strength theory (TST). Advances in Mechanics, 2023, 53(3): 693-712 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-017
Citation: Wang B. Thermodynamic strength theory (TST). Advances in Mechanics, 2023, 53(3): 693-712 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-017

热力学强度理论

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-017
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金原创探索计划项目 (12150001)、重点基金项目 (11832019), 国防科技工业核动力技术创新中心项目 (HDLCXZX-2021-HD-035), 广东省极端条件重点实验室等项目的支持.
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王彪, 中山大学教授, 国家杰出青年基金获得者(1997年), 教育部长江奖励计划特聘教授(2000年). 曾获得多项国际和省部级科技奖励, 包括国务院政府特殊津贴获得者(2001年)、“广东省特支计划”杰出人才(2019年, 南粤百杰)、ISI(美国科学信息研究所)“经典引文奖”(Citation Classic Award, 2000年)、广东省科学技术奖励一等奖(2007年, 排名第一)、教育部科学技术成果一等奖(2004年, 排名第一)、第五届中国青年科技奖(1997年)、做出突出贡献的中国博士学位获得者(1991年)、广东省丁颖科技奖(2010年)等荣誉. 长期担任多个学术兼职, 目前兼任教育部核工程与技术专业教学指导委员会委员, 中国力学学会常务理事, 广东省物理学会理事长, 广东省辐射防护协会工业辐射防护专业委员会主任委员等.   王彪教授1988年在哈尔滨工业大学获固体力学专业博士学位, 1988年—1991年在清华大学做博士后研究工作, 1991年初被哈尔滨工业大学聘为副教授及复合材料研究所副所长, 1992年被破格晋升为教授. 2004年调入中山大学, 曾任物理科学与工程技术学院院长(2005年—2014年), 创办了中法核工程与技术学院并任院长(2010年—2020年).   王彪教授多年来一直在: (1)固体力学理论与模型; (2)核仿真和核安全关键科学与技术; (3)微纳米材料物理与力学; (4)特种激光晶体材料和激光器制备等领域开展研究工作, 共发表了SCI收录的国际学术杂志论文500余篇, 出版专著2部, 已获授权的发明专利50余项.   作为项目负责人, 曾获得多项国家级项目的资助, 包括国家自然科学基金原创探索项目、国家自然科学基金重点项目、国家科技部863研究计划、国防科工委重大基础研究计划等

    通讯作者:

    wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O346

Thermodynamic strength theory (TST)

More Information
  • 摘要: 材料结构强度的准确预报是工程结构设计与优化的关键, 也是固体力学的核心问题之一. 传统强度理论主要依赖于经验公式, 虽种类繁多, 但适用的材料和工况有较大的局限性. 为确保安全, 工程结构设计往往采用较大的安全系数, 造成了极大的材料浪费, 且依然无法杜绝恶性事故的发生. 如何从普适的原理出发, 突破传统强度理论的经验桎梏, 发展新的材料结构强度评估理论, 是一个亟待解决的科学与工程难题. 本文简要总结了传统强度理论所存在的问题, 概述了一些基于能量思想预报材料结构失效行为的方法, 并重点介绍了作者提出的热力学强度理论体系. 该理论体系将材料结构视为一个热力学系统, 把材料结构失效强度的预报纳入被广泛认可的热力学框架. 原则上, 该理论对材料结构的失效模式没有限制, 适用于多种失效模式的强度预报. 以几个代表性实例来说明理论的正确性和广泛适用性, 体现了极好的工程应用前景.

     

  • 图  1  热力学强度理论的整体框架

    图  2  外载作用下初始裂纹为a0的薄板$ {G_I} = {{2\pi \sigma _{}^2ah} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{2\pi \sigma _{}^2ah} {{E_{\text{e}}}}}} \right. } {{E_{\text{e}}}}} $, $ R = 4h\gamma + 4ah{{\partial \gamma } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\partial \gamma } {\partial a}}} \right. } {\partial a}} $与裂纹长度的关系图. (a) $ \gamma $与裂纹长度无关, R阻力是定值. 当荷载为$ \sigma _1^{} $时, 裂纹不扩展; 当荷载增加至$ \sigma _2^{} $时, 裂纹失稳扩展. (b) R阻力曲线单调递增, 当荷载为$ \sigma _1^{} $时, 裂纹稳定扩展; 当荷载增加至$ \sigma _2^{} $时, 裂纹失稳扩展

    图  3  (a)单轴荷载作用下无限板上的圆孔示及虚拟裂纹意图, (b) 岩石的轴向临界载荷与孔洞半径的关系, 实验数据 (黑点) 取自文献(Carter 1992)

    图  4  (a) 不同模量玻璃纤维增强聚合物压缩实验所得的临界荷载与Euler公式结果的对比(AlAjarmeh et al. 2019), (b) 压杆直构型态和合力偏心态示意图

    图  5  $ f\left( {kL} \right) = kL\cos kL + \sin kL $的函数图, $ f\left( {kL} \right) = 0 $的首个大于零的解为$ kL = {\text{2}}{\text{.03}} $

    图  6  LiNbO3单晶样品的几何结构

    图  7  最大应力准则和全局能量准则的预报结果与铌酸锂单晶实验数据的比较(Wang 2020)

    表  1  LiNbO3单晶样品结构信息和实验结果

    样品编号S/mmW/mmB/mma/mmPmax/Na/W
    1-1163.901.760.866.520.21
    1-2164.001.711.060.380.25
    1-3164.031.731.350.830.32
    1-4164.201.761.647.200.38
    1-5164.131.702.032.850.48
    1-6164.201.730.877.520.19
    1-7164.101.701.546.490.37
    1-8164.301.731.747.110.40
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-04-25
  • 录用日期:  2023-06-03
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-06-04
  • 刊出日期:  2023-09-30

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