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金属增材制造过程中材料微观组织演化的模拟研究

陈泽坤 李晓雁

陈泽坤, 李晓雁. 金属增材制造过程中材料微观组织演化的模拟研究. 力学进展, 2022, 52(2): 397-409 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-021
引用本文: 陈泽坤, 李晓雁. 金属增材制造过程中材料微观组织演化的模拟研究. 力学进展, 2022, 52(2): 397-409 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-021
Chen Z K, Li X Y. Numerical simulations for microstructure evolution during metal additive manufacturing. Advances in Mechanics, 2022, 52(2): 397-409 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-021
Citation: Chen Z K, Li X Y. Numerical simulations for microstructure evolution during metal additive manufacturing. Advances in Mechanics, 2022, 52(2): 397-409 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-021

金属增材制造过程中材料微观组织演化的模拟研究

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-021
基金项目: 北京市自然科学基金 (Z180014) 资助项目
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李晓雁, 清华大学长聘教授、博导, 国家海外高层次青年人才、优秀青年基金获得者. 近年来, 一直致力于新型微纳米结构材料的构筑设计、先进制备和力学研究. 目前以第一或通讯作者在《Nature》《Nature Rev Mater》《Nature Nanotech》《Nature Mater》《Nature Commu》《JMPS》《PRL》《Nano Lett》《PNAS》《Science Adv》等期刊上发表SCI论文70余篇

    通讯作者:

    xiaoyanlithu@tsinghua.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O341

Numerical simulations for microstructure evolution during metal additive manufacturing

More Information
  • 摘要: 金属增材制造是集设计、制造一体化的一种新型金属构件制造技术, 在航天航空、交通运输、生物医疗等领域具有广阔的应用前景. 金属增材制造材料的力学性能与其材料微观组织密切相关. 因此, 发展金属增材制造过程中材料微观组织的模拟方法, 有助于指导和优化金属增材制造的工艺参数和流程, 从而制备出性能优异的金属材料. 本文发展了基于连续体假设的热传导模型与元胞自动机相结合的模拟方法, 并利用生死单元方法, 考虑晶粒的重熔和再生长过程, 解决了金属增材制造中多层粉末制造的数值模拟问题. 本文采用该方法模拟了镍基合金IN718、不锈钢316L和高熵合金FeCoCrNiMn的增材制造过程, 并获得了这些增材制造合金的典型材料微观组织, 其模拟结果与实验结果相吻合. 同时, 将该方法拓展到三维尺度的模拟, 研究了镍基合金IN718增材制造过程中三维晶粒的形核和生长. 最后, 对金属增材制造过程中材料微观组织演化的模拟研究中的主要问题进行了总结和展望.

     

  • 图  1  金属增材制造工艺优化流程

    图  2  二维元胞自动机示意图. (a)晶粒轮廓示意图, (b)二维元胞自动机网络.每一个网格为一个元胞,白色网格表示液态元胞,浅蓝色网格表示界面元胞,黄色网格表示固态元胞,灰色网格表示邻居元胞,黑色圆点表示潜在形核位点,蓝色虚线边框表示晶粒轮廓的包络边界,紫色区域代表凝固晶粒

    图  3  模拟结果与实验结果的对比. (a)镍基合金IN718的微观组织(实验, Parimi et al. 2014), (b)不锈钢316L的微观组织(实验, Wang Y M et al. 2018), (c)高熵合金FeCoCrNiMn的微观组织(实验, Zheng et al. 2021), (d)镍基合金IN718的微观组织(本文的模拟), (e)不锈钢316L的微观组织(本文的模拟), (f)高熵合金FeCoCrNiMn的微观组织(本文的模拟). (BD: building direction, 构件方向; SD: scanning direction, 扫描方向; TD: transverse direction, 横截面方向)

    图  4  三维金属增材制造材料微观组织演化过程. (a)第一层打印,部分冷却区域发生晶粒形核; (b)第一层打印,冷却形核的晶粒逐渐长大; (c)第一层打印结束, 晶粒占据整个打印区域; (d)第二层打印,发生晶粒的重熔现象,红色实心箭头表示打印方向; (e)第二层打印,随着温度冷却,第一层重熔区与第二层打印区发生晶粒形核与长大; (f)第二层打印结束,形核长大的晶粒占据整个打印区域

    表  1  三种增材制造合金的模拟参数

    材料激光
    功率/
    W
    打印
    速度/
    (m·s−1)
    铺粉
    层厚/
    m
    元胞
    尺寸/
    m
    形核
    密度/
    m−2
    平均过冷
    度ΔTm/
    K
    标准差
    ΔTσ/
    K
    生长系数
    λ1/
    (m·s−1·K−1)
    λ2/
    (m·s−1·K−2)
    λ2/
    (m·s−1·K−3)
    IN7183903.33×10−33×10−45×10−62×1099.52.01.77×10−51.58×10−52.29×10−6
    316L25013×10−52×10−61.24×101010.01.0−1.20×10−3−3.08×10−43.02×10−5
    FeCoCrNiMn2004×10−34×10−42×10−66.06×1089.52.02.23×10−3−1.30×10−46.94×10−6
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-04-18
  • 录用日期:  2022-06-09
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-14
  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-25

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