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热端部件低温热腐蚀疲劳损伤机理、寿命模型和抗腐蚀设计方法

赵高乐 齐红宇 李少林 刘扬 杨晓光 石多奇 孙燕涛

赵高乐, 齐红宇, 李少林, 刘扬, 杨晓光, 石多奇, 孙燕涛. 热端部件低温热腐蚀疲劳损伤机理、寿命模型和抗腐蚀设计方法. 力学进展, 待出版 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-020
引用本文: 赵高乐, 齐红宇, 李少林, 刘扬, 杨晓光, 石多奇, 孙燕涛. 热端部件低温热腐蚀疲劳损伤机理、寿命模型和抗腐蚀设计方法. 力学进展, 待出版 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-020
Zhao G L, Qi H Y, Li S L, Liu Y, Yang X G, Shi D Q, Sun Y T. Low temperature hot corrosion fatigue damage mechanism, life model and corrosion resistance design method of hot section components. Advances in Mechanics, in press doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-020
Citation: Zhao G L, Qi H Y, Li S L, Liu Y, Yang X G, Shi D Q, Sun Y T. Low temperature hot corrosion fatigue damage mechanism, life model and corrosion resistance design method of hot section components. Advances in Mechanics, in press doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-020

热端部件低温热腐蚀疲劳损伤机理、寿命模型和抗腐蚀设计方法

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-22-020
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金资助项目(51975027).
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李少林, 北京航空航天大学副教授、硕导. 一直从事航空发动机高温部件结构强度的基础理论和方法研究, 主持国家自然基金面上/青年项目、“两机”专项课题等20余项, 在《International Journal of Fatigue》《Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures》《Ceramics International》等期刊发表SCI论文20余篇、出版译著1部

    通讯作者:

    lishaolin@buaa.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: V239

Low temperature hot corrosion fatigue damage mechanism, life model and corrosion resistance design method of hot section components

More Information
  • 摘要: 对于沿海地区或海洋环境中使用的航空发动机来说, 由于高温、机械载荷和盐雾环境的共同作用, 热腐蚀疲劳破坏是影响其热端部件服役寿命的主要因素. 本文对热端部件低温热腐蚀疲劳损伤机理、寿命模型和防腐蚀设计方法进行了总结、归纳及评述, 提出了未来的研究趋势与发展方向. 首先介绍航空发动机热端部件的热腐蚀疲劳故障案例、损伤演化机理; 其次, 重点分析了低温腐蚀疲劳寿命的唯象模型、损伤力学模型、断裂力学模型以及机器学习模型; 再次, 对几种代表性的考虑腐蚀演化不同阶段的分段式腐蚀疲劳全寿命模型进行综述, 还分析指出了腐蚀疲劳全寿命模型的发展趋势; 从次, 对航空发动机材料选择、零件制造、结构强度设计和外场运行维护不同阶段的抗腐蚀方法进行了综述. 最后, 对增材制造零部件的热腐蚀疲劳问题以及无损检测技术、人工智能等与热腐蚀疲劳研究的结合进行了展望.

     

  • 图  1  盐雾环境导致的航空发动机涡轮部件失效案例. (a) CF6-80C2发动机断裂叶片, (b)低温热腐蚀形貌(Pridemore 2003), (c) 250-C47B发动机断裂叶片, (d)高温热腐蚀形貌(Roach et al. 2005)

    图  2  热端部件热腐蚀截面形貌(Stringer 1987). (a)高温热腐蚀形貌, 使用401 h的Olympus发动机一级涡轮叶片, (b)低温热腐蚀形貌, 海洋环境使用的某型航空发动机涡轮叶片

    图  3  燃气轮机的叶片. (a)用于发电的燃气轮机的断裂叶片以及(b)叶片上的腐蚀坑(Poursaeidi & Arablu 2013), (c)船用燃气轮机叶片的损伤(Meisner & Opila 2020)

    图  4  空气中的盐诱导航空发动机零部件发生热腐蚀的过程总结(Pridemore 2003; Nippon Cargo Airlines CO. 2011; NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Office of Aviation Safety 2009, 2015, 2016)

    图  5  环境温度与两种类型热腐蚀速率的关系示意图(Draper 2011). (图中的538℃, 704℃, 884℃和1010℃均仅供参考, 随着合金体系和硫酸盐成分的变化也会出现相应的变化)

    图  6  高温热腐蚀层的形成机理示意图

    图  7  低温热腐蚀坑萌生机理示意图

    图  8  直升机主转子部件有无点蚀的归一化寿命与归一化裂纹长度的关系图(Mills & Honeycutt)

    图  9  热腐蚀对高温合金疲劳寿命的影响规律. (a) 704 °C处光棒和热腐蚀试验件的疲劳寿命与应变范围(Telesman et al. 2016), (b) Franklin等在不同腐蚀环境下的试验结果(Franklin & Nelson, 1981), (c)腐蚀坑深度和宽度尺寸对疲劳寿命的影响, (d)腐蚀坑面积尺寸对疲劳寿命的影响(Gabb et al. 2010)

    图  10  低温热腐蚀疲劳损伤演化全过程示意图(Draper 2011)

    图  11  腐蚀坑的SEM图像. (a)热腐蚀的表面腐蚀坑形貌和(b)局部区域放大的图像, (c)孤立腐蚀坑的分布区域以及(d)单个腐蚀坑的放大形貌(Nesbitt & Draper 2016)

    图  12  Chan等(2020b)提出的腐蚀坑聚结模型. (a)两个不同表面长度 (2a1和2a2) 和深度 (d1d2) 的半圆形腐蚀坑相互作用示意图; (b)不同腐蚀坑尺寸的间距和相互影响作用的关系; (c)不同尺寸腐蚀坑的聚结标准; (d)聚结后腐蚀坑的等效尺寸

    图  13  基于损伤力学的腐蚀疲劳损伤模型定义示意图(Zheng & Wang 2020)

    图  14  基于支持向量回归模型的腐蚀疲劳寿命预测结果(Gabb et al. 2010)

    图  15  合金表面腐蚀坑的形貌和尺寸

    图  16  航空发动机关键零部件合金的环境抗性评价图

    图  17  涂覆防腐蚀涂层前后经热腐蚀氧化暴露后的ME3合金疲劳寿命以及微观损伤形貌(Gabb et al. 2010, Gangloff 2008).

    图  18  (a)涂层表面和(b)纵向截面缺陷形貌; (c)不同工艺处理后的ME3 合金暴露于氧化和热腐蚀环境中的疲劳寿命(Nesbitt et al. 2018)

    图  19  经热腐蚀暴露后CFM56-3型发动机HPT叶片通过腐蚀去除工艺处理前后形貌对比(Conner & Weimer 2000).

    表  1  航空发动机发生的热腐蚀事故

    年代发动机型号失效部件失效原因合金类型地区/污染物文献
    1950Proteus动叶/导叶热腐蚀Nimonic90燃油Stringer 1977
    1964Spey热腐蚀Nimonic105周围大气Stringer 1977
    1974Dart1级动叶热腐蚀Nimonic105沿海气候Battelle Memorial Institute C, OH. 1975
    1975动叶/导叶热腐蚀713C沿海气候Stringer 1977
    2001250—C20B涡轮叶片超温/腐蚀夏威夷Plagens et al. 2003
    2002CF6—80C2HPT低温热腐蚀Rene142中国台北Pridemore 2003
    2002250—C20B涡轮叶片热腐蚀Inconel738NebraskaBrannen & Dymock 2004
    2003250—C47B涡轮叶片高温热腐蚀Inconel738墨西哥湾Roach et al. 2005
    2005PT6A—114A涡轮叶片热腐蚀波多黎各Hogenson et al. 2006
    2006HPT热腐蚀Udimet500Ejaz & Tauqir 2006
    2009PT6A—114A涡轮叶片低温腐蚀大气灰尘2009. Engine/Component Investigation Report
    2010CF6HPT低温热腐蚀Rene142日本Nippon Cargo Airlines CO. 2011
    2011HPT热腐蚀人体汗液韩峰等 2011
    2013Trent772BHPT低温热腐蚀大气污染AAIB
    2015Trent1000IPT腐蚀疲劳CMSX—10KANSV
    20164Trent1000IPT低温热腐蚀CMSX—10K日本等ANSV
    20173Trent1000IPT低温热腐蚀CMSX—10K奥克兰等ANSV
    2017CF34—8HPT低温热腐蚀Rene142空气污染物Aviation 2017
    2018Trent700HPT高温热腐蚀镍基单晶中国香港AAIA
    2018Trent1000IPT低温腐蚀CMSX—10KANSV
    20192Trent1000IPT低温腐蚀CMSX—10K罗马等Kaminski—Morrow 2019
    年份上标数字代表当年发生相应的事故数量; IPT代表中压涡轮叶片; HPT代表高压涡轮叶片
    AAIB: Air Accidents Investigation Branch (2013. AAIB Bulletin.) ANSV: Agenzia nazionale per la sicurezza del volo (https://ansv.it/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/ANSV-safety-recommendations-B787-8-LN-LND.pdf) AAIA: Air Accidents Investigation Authority (2021. Incident Investigation Final Report.)
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