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等离子体激励气动力学探索与展望

李应红 吴云 梁华 朱益飞 张海灯 郭善广

李应红, 吴云, 梁华, 朱益飞, 张海灯, 郭善广. 等离子体激励气动力学探索与展望. 力学进展, 2022, 52(1): 1-32 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-044
引用本文: 李应红, 吴云, 梁华, 朱益飞, 张海灯, 郭善广. 等离子体激励气动力学探索与展望. 力学进展, 2022, 52(1): 1-32 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-044
Li Y H, Wu Y, Liang H, Zhu Y F, Zhang H D, Guo S G. Exploration and outlook of plasma-actuated gas dynamics. Advances in Mechanics, 2022, 52(1): 1-32 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-044
Citation: Li Y H, Wu Y, Liang H, Zhu Y F, Zhang H D, Guo S G. Exploration and outlook of plasma-actuated gas dynamics. Advances in Mechanics, 2022, 52(1): 1-32 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-044

等离子体激励气动力学探索与展望

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-044
基金项目: 感谢空军工程大学等离子体动力学重点实验室等离子体流动控制研究团队老师和研究生的辛勤工作, 感谢各合作单位给予的支持帮助. 感谢国家自然科学基金 (52025064, 51790511, 91941105, 91941301, 51522606, 51336011) 资助.
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李应红, 1963年1月出生, 重庆奉节人. 中国科学院院士, 空军工程大学教授, 航空推进理论与工程领域专家. 现任航空等离子体动力学国家级重点实验室和飞机推进系统军队重点实验室主任; 担任中国工程热物理学会副理事长, 中国航空学会等学会理事, 《航空学报》《推进技术》等期刊编委

    通讯作者:

    yinghong_li@126.com

  • 中图分类号: V211

Exploration and outlook of plasma-actuated gas dynamics

More Information
  • 摘要: 等离子体激励气动力学是研究等离子体激励与流动相互作用下, 绕流物体受力和流动特性以及管道内部流动规律的科学, 属于空气动力学、气体动力学与等离子体动力学交叉前沿领域. 等离子体激励是等离子体在电磁场力作用下运动或气体放电产生的压力、温度、物性变化, 对气流施加的一种可控扰动. 局域、非定常等离子体激励作用下, 气流运动状态会发生显著变化, 进而实现气动性能的提升. 国际上对介质阻挡放电等离子体激励、等离子体合成射流激励及其调控附面层、分离流动、含激波流动等开展了大量研究. 等离子体激励调控气流呈现显著的频率耦合效应, 等离子体冲击流动控制是提升调控效果的重要途径. 发展高效能等离子体激励方法, 通过等离子体激励与气流耦合, 激发和利用气流不稳定性, 揭示耦合机理、提升调控效果, 是等离子体激励气动力学未来的发展方向.

     

  • 图  1  等离子体激励气动力学的内涵(吴云和李应红 2015, 李应红和吴云 2020, Tang et al. 2020a)

    图  2  气体放电等离子体形成流体动力学宏观激励的微观原理

    图  3  (a) 表面介质阻挡放电等离子体激励器侧视图(吴云和李应红 2015), (b)时空分辨的放电等离子体形态俯视图(Starikovskii et al. 2009)

    图  4  高精度的表面介质阻挡放电等离子体激励诊断与计算结果. (a) 表面介质阻挡放电等离子体时空演化精细结构侧视图, 实验与数值模拟, (b) 等离子体激励下的气动响应高速拍摄图像侧视图, 实验与数值模拟(Zhu et al. 2017)

    图  5  (a) 表面放电等离子体激励相图, (b) 用于减阻激励的定制化快升缓降电压波形 (Zhu & Wu 2020)

    图  7  正弦交流SDBD等离子体激励推迟层流附面层转捩的效果和机理(Yadala & Srikar 2018, Duchmann et al. 2013, Schuele et al. 2013)

    图  8  等离子体激励促进层流附面层转捩的效果和机理(Correale et al. 2013, Zhang et al. 2020). (a)基准流场; (b)激励后流场. 自上而下, 高超声速和超声速附面层的结果为NPLS粒子图像, 而亚声速附面层的为仿真结果

    图  9  等离子体激励减小湍流摩擦阻力的方法、规律和机理(Jukes et al. 2016, Choi et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2019, Duong et al. 2021, 彭倩 2018, Cheng et al. 2021)

    图  10  等离子体合成射流激励与横流附面层相互作用(Narayanaswamy et al. 2010, Zong & Kotsonis 2017b, 2019, 2020; Zhou et al. 2017, Yang et al. 2016)

    图  11  纳秒脉冲等离子体激励抑制翼型分离流动的演化过程(赵光银 2015)

    图  13  等离子体合成射流激励抑制流动分离的四大机理(Caruana et al. 2013, Zong &van Pelt et al. 2018, Liu et al. 2018, 苏志等 2018, 李洋等 2018)

    图  14  等离子体激励控制压气机内部流动典型激励布局(Zhang et al. 2017a). (a) 转子叶顶端壁等离子体激励, (b) 叶片吸力面等离子体激励, (c) 端壁等离子体激励

    图  15  分离区外纳秒脉冲等离子体激励与流体耦合作用机理. (a) 等离子体激励诱导的畸变团, (b) 激励触发流动失稳

    图  17  等离子体激励控制激波/附面层干扰的发展脉络(Leonov & Yarantsev 2008, Greene et al. 2015, Gan et al. 2018, Tang et al. 2020a)

    图  18  流向阵列式高频脉冲电弧等离子体激励的控制效果和经验公式

    表  1  几种典型等离子体激励特性

    介质阻挡放电
    等离子体激励
    火花放电
    等离子体激励
    电弧放电
    等离子体激励
    定义电极被绝缘介质阻挡形成的
    非平衡等离子体激励
    电极被等离子体通道连接后
    快速停止,使等离子
    体保持非平衡
    电极被持续导通, 导致等离子
    体区域趋向局域热平衡
    放电通道
    约化均值
    20 ~ 100 Td50 ~ 200 Td (取决于导通后的
    电压与气隙大小)
    <20 Td (取决于导通后的
    电压与气隙大小)
    最大比
    沉积能量
    0.5 eV/mol2 eV/mol10 eV/mol
    单次放电
    时间尺度
    10 ~ 50 ns纳秒至微秒微秒至毫秒
    主要特性化学活性高, 运行时间长,
    结构简单
    气体温度低, 电场驱动的等离子体
    反应剧烈, 化学活性高便于调控
    气体温度高 (>3000K) , 温度
    驱动的气体裂解反应
    剧烈, 近似燃烧
    激励机理快速气体加热 (纳秒) +振动转动
    弛豫气体加热 (微秒至毫秒) +
    离子风加速
    高能量快速气体加热高能量气体加热
    应用场景抑制分离流动、调控附面层、
    防除冰等
    等离子体合成射流调控激波与
    激波/附面层干扰
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  几种典型介质阻挡放电等离子体激励特性

     正弦交流
    介质阻挡放电激励
    微秒脉冲
    介质阻挡放电激励
    纳秒脉冲
    介质阻挡放电激励
    定义电压服从正弦交流变化规律电压上升时间小于两次微
    放电间隔时间
    电压上升时间与等离子体
    传播时间接近
    放电通道约化电场均值 (参考) 20 ~ 40 Td30 ~ 50 Td50 ~ 100 Td
    单次放电时间尺度
    (参考)
    10 ~ 30 ns10 ~ 50 ns10 ~ 50 ns
    最大比沉积能量
    /(eV/mol−1)
    0.010.10.5
    主要特性密集丝状微放电, 离子风和缓慢
    振动转动弛豫加热效果明显
    放电均匀性较好,
    能量效率较高
    可重复、可控、均匀, 快速气体
    加热明显, 化学活性高,
    能量效率高
    激励机理离子风+缓慢气体加热弱快速气体加热亚微秒时间尺度快速气体加热
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-13
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