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温压炸药的特性及发展现状

胡宏伟 宋浦 邓国强 肖川

胡宏伟, 宋浦, 邓国强, 肖川. 温压炸药的特性及发展现状. 力学进展, 待出版 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-021
引用本文: 胡宏伟, 宋浦, 邓国强, 肖川. 温压炸药的特性及发展现状. 力学进展, 待出版 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-021
Hu H W, Song P, Deng G Q, Xiao C. Characteristics and development of thermobaric explosives. Advances in Mechanics, in press doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-021
Citation: Hu H W, Song P, Deng G Q, Xiao C. Characteristics and development of thermobaric explosives. Advances in Mechanics, in press doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-021

温压炸药的特性及发展现状——

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-021
详细信息
  • 中图分类号: TG156

Characteristics and development of thermobaric explosives

  • 摘要: 温压炸药的爆炸涉及到起爆、爆轰、冲击波的传播与反射、多相湍流和多模化学反应等, 是一个多尺度、多物质、多因素、多物理场耦合过程, 深化温压炸药高效释能的关键基础理论, 揭示温压爆炸的反应机理并有效控制和利用是温压武器创新发展的关键科学问题, 对高威力温压炸药的配方设计、温压武器的研制和使用具有重要指导意义. 本文描述了温压爆炸的基本原理, 讨论了温压炸药的概念和内涵, 从炸药种类、释能特点、能量构成、爆炸反应机制、爆炸效应增强机理、杀伤机制等方面阐述了温压炸药的特征, 分析了温压炸药有限空间内部爆炸威力的评估方法以及温压炸药的研发状况, 并提出了相关发展建议, 以期为高威力温压炸药的设计、温压弹的研制及毁伤评估提供指导.

     

  • 图  1  (a) 俄制ODAB-500PM型温压弹, (b) 俄军使用温压弹打击叙利亚恐怖分子 (2019年叙利亚战争)

    图  2  温压炸药有限空间内部爆炸的三个阶段(Arnold & Rottenkolber 2007, 2008)

    图  3  HE, TBX和EBX的爆炸波压力历程 (Trzciński et al. 2015)

    图  4  爆轰过程的热力学路径 (P-V图) (1 atm = 101.325 kPa) (Arnold & Rottenkolber 2007)

    图  5  燃烧过程的热力学路径 (P-V图) (Arnold & Rottenkolber 2007)

    图  6  空中和有限空间内爆炸的压力−时间波形图. (a) 自由空气中(胡宏伟等2013), (b) 结构内部爆炸(Richard et al. 2006)

    图  7  有限空间内反射冲击波对金属粒子和混合的影响(Michael et al. 2005)

    图  8  开放空间的杀伤机制 (Wildegger-Gaissmaier 2003)

    图  9  坑道内爆炸的杀伤机理示意图 (Wildegger-Gaissmaier 2003)

    图  10  球型装药开放空间爆炸的冲击波扩展过程和压力-时间波形. (a) 冲击波扩展过程, (b) 冲击波压力-时间曲线 (Wildegger-Gaissmaier 2003)

    图  11  球型装药密闭空间的冲击波扩展过程和波形. (a) 冲击波扩展过程, (b) 冲击波压力−时间曲线 (Wildegger-Gaissmaier 2003)

    图  12  试验装置和试验布局示意图. (a) 传感器和装药布局示意图, (b) 试验装置

    图  13  屋顶举起实验装置. (a) 起爆之前顶盖位置, (b) 起爆后顶盖位置. (胡宏伟等2016)

    图  14  某炸药的顶盖位移−时间曲线 (胡宏伟等2016)

    表  1  不同类型温压炸药/装药的反应特征及应用环境对比

    类型装药结构作用过程反应类型反应尺度应用环境
    FAE内外层结构, 内层高爆炸药,
    外层液态或液固混合燃料
    抛洒、二次起爆、爆轰爆轰数百毫秒开放环境
    TBX全固态装药
    固液混合物
    爆轰、抛洒、引燃爆轰、爆燃、燃烧数微秒至秒密闭环境
    EBX单一固体装药爆轰、抛洒、引燃爆轰、爆燃数微秒至百毫秒密闭环境
    SFE内外层结构, 内层高爆炸药,
    外层固态粉末燃料
    爆轰、抛洒、引燃爆燃、燃烧数百毫秒密闭环境
    注: 表中FAE是为了对比温压炸药与燃料空气炸药的区别.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  TNT爆轰能的计算值

    过程爆轰能量/(kJ·kg−1)能量类型
    冲击压缩−1.41
    等熵膨胀5.94
    等压冷却4.534.53爆轰机械能
    0.08爆轰热能
    4.61爆轰总能量
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  空气中燃烧热的计算值

    过程燃烧能量/(kJ·kg−1)能量类型
    冲击压缩0.0
    等熵膨胀6.4
    等压冷却6.46.4燃烧机械能
    8.1燃烧热能
    14.5燃烧总能量
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  典型炸药在自由空气中和密闭空间内爆炸威力

    炸药自由场 (TNT当量) 准静态压力 (Tritonal 当量)
    平均压力平均冲量2.0 kg3.0 kg3.5 kg
    TNT11
    Tritonal111
    DXD-091.051.691.041.05
    DXD-101.271.680.841.02
    DXD-180.931.361.071.161.11
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  几种炸药的内爆炸试验结果

    炸药组分ρ/(g·cm−3)Δpm/MPaI/(Pa·s)$x $max/mEAEI/(Pa·s)
    IH-135HMX/Al/R451.330.414896.40.3561185.9
    RAX-16HMX/Al/GAP1.620.276868.80.3121110.1
    PBX-109RDX/Al/R451.640.331724.00.3831227.3
    YJ-15proprietary1.780.579730.90.3841227.3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  候选炸药配方

    炸药组分ρ/(g·cm−3)
    PBXIH-135HMX/Al/HTPB1.68
    PBXIH-135EBHMX/Al/PCP-TMETN1.79
    PBXIH-136RDX/AP/Al/PCP-TMETN2.03
    PBXIH-18HMX/Al/Hytemperature/DOA1.92
    PBXIH-18 mod.1HMX/Al/Hytemperature/DOA1.77
    PBXIH-18 mod.2HMX/Al/Hytemperature/DOA1.84
    HAS-4HMX/Al/HTPB1.65
    HAS-4 EBHMX/Al/PCP-TMETN1.73
    Talley Mix 5672Al/Zr/IPN/Ethyl Cellulose(32/40/26.75/1.25)2.21
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-23
  • 录用日期:  2021-10-06
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