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固体的弹性模量和内耗测量方法研究进展

谢明宇 李法新

谢明宇, 李法新. 固体的弹性模量和内耗测量方法研究进展. 力学进展, 待出版 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-013
引用本文: 谢明宇, 李法新. 固体的弹性模量和内耗测量方法研究进展. 力学进展, 待出版 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-013
Xie M Y, Li F X. Review of the measurement methods for elastic moduli and internal frictions of solids. Advances in Mechanics, in press doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-013
Citation: Xie M Y, Li F X. Review of the measurement methods for elastic moduli and internal frictions of solids. Advances in Mechanics, in press doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-013

固体的弹性模量和内耗测量方法研究进展——

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-013
基金项目: 本文工作得到国家自然科学基金重大项目课题 (11890684) 的资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李法新, 男, 北京大学工学院力学与工程科学系, 研究员. 2004年获清华大学固体力学博士学位, 2005—2007在加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚大学(UBC)做博士后, 2007年10月进入北京大学工作. 目前担任SCI期刊《Smart Materials & Structures》副主编、《固体力学学报》编委等职务. 主要从事智能材料与结构力学、无损检测及结构健康监测方法、高温合金与陶瓷表征的研究. 已发表SCI论文100余篇, 总引用1500余次, 授权发明专利18项, 出版学术专著1部. 曾获基金委优秀青年基金(2014)、中国力学青年科技奖(2015)、三次荣获北京大学优秀博士论文指导教师称号(2014, 2016, 2020)

    通讯作者:

    lifaxin@pku.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O329

Review of the measurement methods for elastic moduli and internal frictions of solids

More Information
  • 摘要: 弹性模量和内耗是固体材料的基本力学性质, 其测量的准确性和便捷性对工业生产和科学研究都很重要. 本文回顾了近一百年来固体材料弹性模量和内耗的测量方法, 主要分为四类: 准静态方法、低频法、共振法和波传播法. 首先对每类方法的测量原理进行了简单介绍及总体评价. 接着对几种共振方法, 包括自由梁共振法、脉冲激励法、超声共振谱方法和压电超声复合振动技术(PUCOT)进行了详细介绍和评价. 然后, 重点介绍了本课题组最新提出的基于机电阻抗的模量内耗测量方法(称之为M-PUCOT或Q-EMI), 它可以同时、准确、快速地测量杨氏/剪切模量及相应内耗. 最后, 对这种新型弹性模量/内耗测量方法的意义和应用前景进行了讨论和展望.

     

  • 图  1  弹性体的蠕变过程. (a) 理想弹性体, (b) 滞弹性体, (c) 线性黏弹性体

    图  2  低频法测量弹性模量与内耗的装置. (a) 扭摆仪, (b) 动态热机械分析仪DMA

    图  3  波传播法测量材料的模量与内耗. (a) 波传播法测量示意图, (b) 超声波通过滞弹性的衰减过程

    图  4  (a) 自由梁共振法; (b) 脉冲激励法

    图  5  超声共振谱法RUS. (a) RUS测量各向异性样品弹性常数矩阵示意图; (b) 在RUS中利用激光测振仪扫描离面位移进行模态识别(Ogi et al. 2002)

    图  6  三组分压电超声复合振动技术

    图  7  基于机电阻抗法的M-PUCOT测量系统

    图  8  换能器−被测试件双组分系统的电纳曲线与端部位移幅频特性曲线

    图  9  采用M-PUCOT方法测量金属棒杨氏模量和内耗(纵向振动模式)时得到的电纳曲线. (1)采用压电换能器A的第一次测量; (2)采用压电换能器A的第二次测量; (3)将换能器A取下, 再次粘结后的测量结果; (4)采用另外一个换能器B的测量结果

    图  10  利用M-PUCOT的纵振动模式测量轴向极化PZT-5H的弹性模量和纵向振动内耗. (a) 居里温度前电纳曲线随温度的变化; (b) 居里温度后电纳曲线随温度的变化; (c) 根据电纳曲线计算得到的弹性模量与内耗

    图  11  利用M-PUCOT测量大块金属玻璃Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5玻璃化转变与晶化过程中的弹性模量与内耗. (a) 循环升温与冷却过程中的弹性模量与内耗随温度的变化; (b) 不同温度热处理后金属玻璃的XRD图案

    图  12  房山汉白玉岩石在压缩过程中的典型应力应变曲线

    图  13  房山汉白玉岩石在压缩破坏前的模量和内耗变化. (a) 1号样品; (b) 2号样品; (c) 3号样品

    表  1  按应变($ \mathrm{\varepsilon } $)−应力($ \mathrm{\sigma } $)关系对固体材料不同力学行为进行分类

    $ \varepsilon $与$ \sigma $成单值关系$ \varepsilon $对$ \sigma $瞬时响应$ \varepsilon $与$ \sigma $成线性关系
    理想弹性
    非线性弹性
    塑性
    滞弹性
    线性黏弹性
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-07-06

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