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大推力液体火箭发动机结构中的力学问题

李斌 闫松 杨宝锋

李斌, 闫松, 杨宝锋. 大推力液体火箭发动机结构中的力学问题. 力学进展, 2021, 51(2): 1-34 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-003
引用本文: 李斌, 闫松, 杨宝锋. 大推力液体火箭发动机结构中的力学问题. 力学进展, 2021, 51(2): 1-34 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-003
Li B, Yan S, Yang B F. Mechanical problems of the large thrust liquid rocket engine. Advances in Mechanics, 2021, 51(2): 1-34 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-003
Citation: Li B, Yan S, Yang B F. Mechanical problems of the large thrust liquid rocket engine. Advances in Mechanics, 2021, 51(2): 1-34 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-003

大推力液体火箭发动机结构中的力学问题——

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-003
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李斌, 1969年生, 研究员, 博士生导师, 航天推进技术研究院副院长, 国家“万人计划”科技创新领军人才, 国防“973”项目技术首席, 总装备部航天运载技术专业组副组长. 长期从事液体火箭发动机和新型组合动力技术研究. 作为我国新一代运载火箭发动机项目负责人, 带领团队突破了高压补燃循环液氧煤油发动机为代表的多项重大关键技术. 获得国家科技进步一等奖1项, 国防科技进步奖项11项, 发表学术论文43篇, 出版著作1部, 授权发明专利、国防专利18项, 受理国际专利1项

    通讯作者:

    CASClibin@sohu.com

  • 中图分类号: V434

Mechanical problems of the large thrust liquid rocket engine

More Information
  • 摘要: 依据大推力液体火箭发动机工作时极端的力热环境状态, 阐述分析了大推力发动机强振动、大静载、多源激励和传递路径复杂的力学特点. 静力学方面介绍了整机结构载荷分析和组件静力学分析方法, 动力学方面介绍了整机低频模型、精细化动力学修正、多源载荷等效等问题的研究情况. 针对发动机典型的部件, 梳理了大推力发动机研制中面临的力学挑战, 包括高温高压燃气摇摆装置、转子动力学、动静干涉流体激振、诱导轮汽蚀振荡、大范围轴向力平衡、超音速涡轮颤振、推力室热疲劳、喷管侧向力载荷、总装管路疲劳断裂等问题, 指出了力学需求和未来研究方向. 最后对发动机结构概率失效分析的现状进行了简要介绍, 为大推力液体火箭发动机研制提供力学支撑.

     

  • 图  1  大推力发动机地面热试车中结构失效照片

    图  2  大推力泵后摆发动机典型结构及力学特点

    图  3  发动机工作时燃烧室振动加速度响应瀑布图

    图  4  大推力发动机整机结构载荷模型

    图  5  燃料入口管固定支板变形(mm)

    图  6  LE-X发动机中压力、流场温度和结构温度分布(Tani et al. 2012)

    图  7  部件静强度分析基本流程

    图  8  涡轮静子温度云图及压力、热载荷下变形云图. (a)温度云图, (b)变形云图

    图  9  某大推力泵前摆发动机低频模型及模态试验验证

    图  10  SSME结构动力学模型发展过程(Baker & Pray 2011, Foley et al. 1983, Muller 1980)

    图  11  基于三维扫描测振的推力室模态试验及理论和实测振型对比. (a)非接触模态试验, (b)理论振型, (c)实测振型

    图  12  部件到整机的模型验证流程

    图  13  液体火箭发动机多源载荷识别试验(Yan et al. 2016)

    图  14  载荷识别结果和真实载荷对比. (a)燃气发生器, (b)燃烧室, (c)涡轮泵(Yan et al. 2016)

    图  15  某泵后摆发动机燃气摇摆装置

    图  16  组合摆10°时燃气摇摆装置传力组件Mises应力云图(MPa)

    图  17  波纹管与铠装环应力分布(MPa)

    图  18  氧泵壳体Mises应力云图(MPa)

    图  19  某涡轮泵轴系失效

    图  20  叶片式扩压器和新型扩压器结构对比. (a)叶片式扩压器, (b)新型扩压器

    图  21  燃料泵诱导轮叶片上的汽蚀侵蚀

    图  22  等螺距诱导轮和新型诱导轮结构对比. (a)等螺距诱导轮, (b)新型诱导轮

    图  23  氧泵径向位移色谱图对比. (a)等螺距诱导轮, (b)新型诱导轮

    图  24  诱导轮汽蚀发展过程(Xiang et al. 2021)

    图  25  平衡活塞示意图(黄智勇等 2004)

    图  26  超音速涡轮内复杂流动压力和马赫数云图

    图  27  涡轮盘1节圆和2节径振型图

    图  28  推力室夹层壁失效模式(Schwarz et al. 2011)

    图  29  大推力发动机起动过程自由激波分离和受限激波分离转换过程

    图  30  煤油预压泵平衡路导管改进前、后结构

    图  31  发动机柔性软管断裂及失稳形貌

    图  32  结构强度分析中的不确定性(Blair et al. 2011)

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-22
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