Composite lattice truss structures are new type materials with many advantages such as lightweight, high specific stiffness, specific strength and multifunctional applications, leading to heightened concerns among researchers at home and abroad. Composite lattice truss structure is one of the new material structures having the best foreground in the world. This article presents a comprehensive review on novel composite sandwich panels with lattice truss cores, including studies on topology design, fabrication method, mechanical properties, failure mechanism and analytical models. Mechanical properties, failure mechanism and prediction models are studied for composite sandwich panels with lattice truss cores. Especially, the modified strength-density charts are provided in the present paper. Potential applications of composite sandwich panels with lattice truss cores are summarized and development tendency of composite lattice truss structures is pointed out.