1-3 type piezoelectric fiber composites and related research progree were reviewed in this paper. From the point of view of the theoretical analysis, parameter identification, numerical methods and experimental approaches, its macroscopic characteristic parameters were illustrated. The existing methods for processing fine-scale 1-3 type piezoelectric fiber composites were compared. Also its applications, prospective applications in acoustics, medicine, control, aeronautics and astronautics and future research directions were reviewed. Finally, several important research directions of 1-3 type piezoelectric fiber composites were pointed out.