Investigations on transverse vibration of axiallymoving strings and its control are reviewed. Transverse vibration of axially moving strings is involved in many engineering devices such as power transmission belts, magnetic tapes, paper tapes, thread lines,band saws, and aerial cable tramways. In the context of linear models,besides a few early results, recent studies on modal analysis of moving strings, vibration of constrained and coupled moving strings, and parametric vibration of moving strings are summarized. In the context of nonlinear models, the equations of motion of moving strings withlarge amplitude are presented, and new progresses on discretizated and direct approximate analytical analysis, modeling of damping mechanisms as viscoelastic materials, and coupled vibration of power transmission systems are surveyed. The state-of-the-art in active control of moving strings vibration, including controllability and observability, the frequency domain analysis and the energy analysis, adaptive vibration control, and nonlinear vibration control, is discussed. Some topics forfuture research, such as nonlinear dynamical behavior of movingstrings, vibration of moving viscoelastic strings, control of hybrid systems containing moving strings and control of nonlinear oscillations of moving strings, are suggested.