Nanostructured materials are characterized by a typical structural size below 100nm. Due to its unique properties, great attention to nanostructured materials has increased in past years. The recent progress in nanostructured materials, especially their generation and synthesis, microstructure, mechanical and thermodynamic properties, is summarized in this paper. This paper also discusses several research hotspots of nanostructured materials and related molecular dynamics simulations. Several future research topics are also presented.