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动物进化的抗冲击策略及其仿生机理研究

邢运 杨嘉陵

邢运, 杨嘉陵. 动物进化的抗冲击策略及其仿生机理研究. 力学进展, 2021, 51(2): 295-341 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-20-027
引用本文: 邢运, 杨嘉陵. 动物进化的抗冲击策略及其仿生机理研究. 力学进展, 2021, 51(2): 295-341 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-20-027
Xing Y, Yang J L. Research progress of impact-resistance strategies and biomimetic mechanism in animal evolution. Advances in Mechanics, 2021, 51(2): 295-341 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-20-027
Citation: Xing Y, Yang J L. Research progress of impact-resistance strategies and biomimetic mechanism in animal evolution. Advances in Mechanics, 2021, 51(2): 295-341 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-20-027

动物进化的抗冲击策略及其仿生机理研究——

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-20-027
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(11032001)资助项目.
详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨嘉陵, 北京航空航天大学教授、博士生导师, 校学术委员会副主任, 校教学指导委员会委员, 中国科协工程力学类专业认证委员会委员, 总参陆航局武装直升机高层专家等, 是国务院政府特殊津贴专家. 2000年以来历任北航固体力学研究所所长, 航空科学与工程学院院长, 教育部第5届科技委员会学部委员, 教育部教学指导委员会力学专业委员会副主任委员, 中国力学学会常务理事, 北京力学会副理事长等. 主要从事: 冲击动力学、塑性力学、仿生力学、飞行器抗冲撞和防护技术研究. 发表学术论文180余篇(SCI收录150余篇), 专利30余项. 2000年获教育部自然科学一等奖, 2013年获教育部科学技术进步一等奖, 2016年获国家发明二等奖

    通讯作者:

    jlyangbuaa@aliyun.com; jlyangbuaa@aliyun.com

  • 中图分类号: Q66

Research progress of impact-resistance strategies and biomimetic mechanism in animal evolution

More Information
  • 摘要: 经过长期的自然选择, 自然界中的动物已经进化出各种各样高效的、可靠的、适应性强的抗冲击策略和机体防护机制, 抵抗来自周围复杂环境的碰撞和冲击载荷, 保护生物外部结构和内部器官在进行激烈生物活动时不受伤害. 相比传统工程防护结构, 这些天然的生物防御系统具有优异的抗冲击特性、高效的能量耗散效率以及可重复使用等特征. 因此, 近年来, 关于探索生物及其仿生机理的研究越来越受到广大学者的关注. 本文作者结合近期在该领域的研究成果, 综述了自然界各类动物的抗冲击策略与身体防护机制及其相关仿生设计与应用的最新研究进展. 特别地, 我们归纳分析和讨论了面对不同载荷环境时生物抗冲击结构独特的进化过程和非凡的力学性能, 并且介绍了相关的抗冲击仿生应用研究. 最后, 讨论了动物抗冲击策略与防护机制及其仿生应用研究的挑战和未来发展方向. 本文可为研究人员和工程师提供有效的数据资料, 为可重复使用能量吸收装置及其飞行器结构的抗冲击与防护设计提供有益借鉴和仿生依据.

     

  • 图  1  大角羊角部的多级结构. (a) 在宏观尺度发现, 具有生长线的弯曲角整体结构和羊角椭圆形管状结构局部放大图; (b) 在微观尺度发现, 羊角结构由角质化细胞薄片一层一层堆叠而成, 角质化细胞呈扁平饼状, 直径约20 ~ 30 μm, 厚度约 1 ~ 2 μm; (c) 在纳观尺度发现, 在羊角角质化细胞平面内随机分布着直径约为200 nm的纤维结构, 这些纤维结构由更细的纤维细丝(直径约为12 nm)组成; (d) 在分子尺度发现, 以上提及的纤维细丝呈$ \alpha $螺旋状, 由二硫键和氢键相互连接在一起; (e) 羊角3个方向分别受到30%压缩量的准静态压力时, 在羊角的纵向和横向表面内均出现了不同形状的剪切带 (Huang et al. 2017)

    图  2  马蹄墙的抗冲击结构 (Huang et al. 2019). (a) 新鲜马蹄近端到远端的背侧示意图; (b) 马蹄正中矢状面; (c) 除正中矢状面外的马蹄墙横截面. 定义了3个方向: 纵向(近端到远端); 径向(轴向到背面); 横向方向(在横断面上与蹄壁周长相切); (d) 马蹄墙和内部小管的三维重建同步X射线显微计算机断层扫描图像

    图  3  猫旋运动与弯脊柱理论 (Kane and Scher 1969)

    图  4  哺乳动物脚掌肉垫着陆理论分析. (a) 弹簧质量阻尼模型, (b) 着陆地面反力曲线 (Alexander et al. 1986)

    图  5  家猫着陆过程中背部弯曲–展开的典型运动姿态 (Zhang et al. 2014a). (a) ~ (d)家猫着陆背部弯曲过程. (a)家猫在前肢触地初始时刻其背部呈完全伸展状态; (b)(c)随后家猫背部不断弯曲缩短进行能量储存; (d)当家猫后肢触地时, 其背部的弯曲程度达到最大; (e) ~ (h) 家猫着陆背部展开过程. 着陆后, 家猫的后肢开始压缩缓冲. (e)背部则保持弯曲状态; (f)随着后肢缓冲吸能的结束, 家猫的身体发生反弹, 弯曲的背部开始展开; (g)(h)缓冲结束后, 家猫前后肢分离, 其背部随着身体的向前运动逐渐展开, 背部储存的能量得到释放

    图  6  东北虎着陆过程中背部弯曲–展开的典型运动姿态 (于晖 2016). (a) 空中展开阶段; (b) 前腿着陆阶段; (c) 空中转体和后腿着陆阶段, 此阶段背部弯曲变形以吸收能量; (d) 前后腿分离恢复阶段

    图  7  家猫着陆四个阶段与地面反力的关系(前后肢分别触地造成地面的双峰现象)(Zhang et al. 2014b)

    图  8  基于猫科动物着陆仿生原理的新型航天座椅结构设计 (Yu et al. 2015b). (a) 猫科动物多级缓冲方式的仿生启发, (b) 仿生多级缓冲座椅力学模型

    图  9  袋鼠跳跃力学模型 (Alexander 1988)

    图  10  蝗虫的储能结构 (Burrows and Sutton 2012). (a) 蝗虫后腿膝关节外侧面(黑色区域为半月板, 蓝色区域为节肢弹性蛋白); (b) 蝗虫后腿膝关节内侧面

    图  11  沫蝉的储能结构 (Siwanowicz and Burrows 2017). (a) 沫蝉右胸膜弓内侧视图, (b) 对应图(a)中的5个横截面, (c) 沫蝉右胸膜弓外侧视图, (d) 沫蝉后胸右侧腹面图像

    图  12  中华斗蟀的跳跃策略实验分析 (Xing and Yang 2020a). (a) 稳定型跳跃方式, 起跳角分别为: (a1) 39.9°, (a2) 40.3°和(a3) 41.8°; (b) 不稳定型跳跃方式, 起跳角分别为: (b1) 19°, (b2) 45.8°和(b3) 46°

    图  13  中华斗蟀增阻抗冲击策略 (Xing and Yang 2020a). (a) 中华斗蟀后腿增阻及其姿态调控实验分析; (b) ~ (e) 后腿与身体的夹角对压强分布的影响, 夹角分别为: (b) −15°, (c) 15°, (d) 45°和(e) 75°

    图  14  竹节虫后腿的抗屈曲策略研究 (Xing and Yang 2019). (a) 竹节虫, (b) 竹节虫后腿结构, (c) 竹节虫胫骨横截面的共聚焦激光扫描显微图像, (d) 不同多边形横截面示意图, (e)等梯度胫骨发生欧拉屈曲时的理论预测与数值模拟挠度曲线比较, (f) 不同梯度胫骨发生欧拉屈曲时的理论预测与数值模拟挠度曲线比较

    图  15  甲虫鞘翅的抗冲击策略研究 (Xing and Yang 2020b). (a) 甲虫及其鞘翅展开与闭合状态, (b) 甲虫鞘翅的三维几何模型及其抗冲击性能的数值模拟示意图

    图  16  不同刚度梯度的甲壳角质层对昆虫鞘翅的防护性能的影响 (Xing and Yang 2020b). (a) 内部软化角质层受压应力云图, (b) 内部硬化角质层受压应力云图, (c) 图(a)和图(b)所示鞘翅模型在准静态载荷下的力位移曲线, (d) 图(a)和图(b)所示鞘翅模型在冲击载荷下的力位移曲线. 红色实线表示内部软化鞘翅角质层, 蓝色实线表示内部硬化鞘翅角质层

    图  17  蜘蛛网抗冲击特性分析 (Sensenig et al. 2012). (a) 真实蜘蛛网拦阻实验, (b) 拦阻过程网内丝线能量耗散云图

    图  18  乌龟甲壳结构示意图 (Dunlop et al. 2011)

    图  19  乌龟甲壳骨缝的微观结构 (Krauss et al. 2009). (a) 龟壳的Micro-CT重构模型, (b) 骨缝区域在3个平面的横截面(正中矢状面, 正面和横向面)

    图  20  贝壳多尺度下的分级结构 (Meyers et al. 2008). (a) 整体壳结构, (b) 宏观尺度下的分层结构, (c) 微米尺度下的“砖块–灰浆”结构, (d) 细胞平面内文石晶片结构, (e) 厚度平面内文石晶片结构

    图  21  鱼鳞护甲的多级分层结构 (Yang et al. 2012). (a) 巨滑舌鱼鳞片护甲多级分层结构(包含矿物层和胶原纤维层), (b) 短吻鳄鳞片护甲多级分层结构(包含硬磷质层和矿化胶原纤维层)

    图  22  鱼鳞的变形与重叠抗冲击策略 (Vernerey and Barthelat 2014). (a) 单个鳞片结构, (b) 鳞片重叠结构, (c) 鳞片结构在整体的分布, (d) 在弯曲过程中鳞片重叠结构的变形

    图  23  仿鳄鱼皮自锁抗冲击材料 (Mirkhalaf et al. 2018). (a) 基于正方形中间截面的截短四面体自锁瓦块单体结构, (b) 基于六边形中间截面的截短八面体自锁瓦块单体结构

    图  24  雀尾螳螂虾掠食前附肢(趾肢)抗冲击结构 (Yaraghi et al. 2016). (a) 雀尾螳螂虾(掠食前附肢用黄色圆圈标注); (b) 图(a)黄色圆圈标注的雀尾螳螂虾掠食前附肢结构; (c) 掠食前附肢正中矢状面CT扫描图; (d) 图(c)中标记区域的高倍微分干涉对比图像, 突出显示了受撞击表面和周期性受撞击区域; (e) 图(d)中受撞击区域的高倍微分干涉对比图像; (f) 受撞击区域(e)的高分辨率纳米压痕图, 显示了与在受撞击区域内观察到的人字形图案分布相关联的弹性模量振荡

    图  25  仿雀尾螳螂虾双正弦波纹状(DSC)夹芯板结构及其力学测试 (Yang et al. 2017). (a) 雀尾螳螂虾, (b) 雀尾螳螂虾仿生双正弦波纹板, (c) 仿生双正弦波纹夹芯板结构, (d) 仿生双正弦波纹板在压缩载荷下的变形模式, (e) 双正弦波纹夹芯板的能量吸收特性比较, (f) 三类波纹夹芯板结构的压缩力位移曲线比较, (g) 双正弦波纹夹芯板的比吸能云图

    图  26  羽毛的层级结构 (Zhang et al. 2018). (a) 羽毛叶片由许多侧分支组成, 这些分支平行排列, 相对于主轴成约$30 ^\circ $的角度, 初级侧枝称为倒钩; (b) 相邻的倒钩紧密重叠, 形成致密的羽毛叶片, 在倒钩的两侧出现了二阶侧枝; (c)和(d) 来自一个倒钩的钩子钩住相邻的倒钩并固定羽毛叶片; (e) 小钩钩住相邻倒钩上小叶的弯曲边缘, 可以观察到更细的齿状脊柱立体结构

    图  27  三种鸟类的波纹状骨缝结构 (Lee et al. 2014). (a) 啄木鸟, (b) 白羽鸡, (c) 犀鸟

    表  1  文章内容总览表

    1 引言 2.9 蜘蛛网的抗冲击策略
    2 陆地动物 3 水中动物
    2.1 大象、犀牛、河马等大型动物的身体防护机制 3.1 龟类甲壳的抗冲击策略
    2.2 牛科动物角部的抗冲击特性 3.2 软体动物外壳的抗冲击策略
    2.3 马蹄墙的抗冲击特性 3.3 鱼鳞的抗冲击策略
    2.4 猫科动物的抗冲击策略 3.4 螳螂虾外壳的抗冲击策略
    2.5 袋鼠的抗冲击策略 4 空中飞行动物(以鸟类为例)的抗冲击策略
    2.6 跳跃昆虫中常见的抗冲击策略 4.1 鸟类羽毛及喙部的抗冲击策略
    2.7 竹节虫胫骨的抗冲击策略 5 结论与展望
    2.8 甲壳虫鞘翅角质层的抗冲击策略
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-10-30
  • 录用日期:  2021-02-27
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-03-31
  • 刊出日期:  2021-06-25

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