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高超声速喷管设计理论与方法

汪运鹏 姜宗林

汪运鹏, 姜宗林. 高超声速喷管设计理论与方法. 力学进展, 2021, 51(2): 257-294 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-20-002
引用本文: 汪运鹏, 姜宗林. 高超声速喷管设计理论与方法. 力学进展, 2021, 51(2): 257-294 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-20-002
Wang Y P, Jiang Z L. A review of theories and methods for hypersonic nozzle design. Advances in Mechanics, 2021, 51(2): 257-294 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-20-002
Citation: Wang Y P, Jiang Z L. A review of theories and methods for hypersonic nozzle design. Advances in Mechanics, 2021, 51(2): 257-294 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-20-002

高超声速喷管设计理论与方法——

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-20-002
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(11672357, 11727901)资助项目.
详细信息
    作者简介:

    汪运鹏, 1978年生, 于2012年获得名古屋大学工学博士学位, 现为中国科学院力学研究所副研究员, 硕士生导师. 主要研究方向为高超声速高温气体动力学, 从事高焓气体流动的数值模拟、激波风洞气动力试验、风洞天平技术研究. 参与和主持多项国家重点研发计划、国家重大专项、自然科学基金等科研项目. 中国空气动力学会测控专业委员会委员, 2016年度中国科学院杰出科技成就奖主要完成者之一. 近年来在《AIAA Journal》《Shock Waves》《力学学报》等国内外期刊发表学术论文20余篇

    通讯作者:

    wangyunpeng@imech.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: V211.751

A review of theories and methods for hypersonic nozzle design

More Information
  • 摘要: 在高超声速飞行技术领域, 特别是涉及到高焓气体流动的研究, 高超声速风洞试验仍然是目前最可靠的研究手段. 风洞流场的品质是高超声速风洞研发最重要的一项性能指标, 其取决于喷管设计采用的理论与方法, 也是风洞设计最关注的一项核心技术. 针对二维轴对称型面喷管设计, 本文首先综述了传统高超声速喷管设计的主要理论和常用方法, 它们在高超声速喷管设计中曾经发挥了重要作用, 包括理论方法, 近似方法和基于两者的修正方法. 然后, 考虑高温气体效应, 分析了高焓喷管设计时面临的困难与问题, 从流动介质物性变化、高温边界层发展和非平衡过程效应三方面, 综述了国内外在高超声速高焓喷管设计方面的研究进展. 最后, 对于高焓喷管的设计理论和方法的发展作了展望, 期望对于推动我国高超声速高焓喷管设计技术的发展提供一些有意义的启示.

     

  • 图  1  激波风洞基本配置的结构示意图

    图  2  轴对称喷管功能性结构示意图

    图  3  喷管设计特征线网格(伍荣林等1985)

    图  4  喷管设计Puckett法(Puckett 1946)

    图  5  喷管设计Foelsch法 (Foelsch 1946)

    图  6  喷管设计圆弧加直线方法 (伍荣林等1985, 易仕和等2013)

    图  7  喷管设计Cresci法 (Cresci 1958)

    图  8  喷管设计Sevells法示意图

    图  9  喷管无黏位流型线设计示意图 (Potter & Carden 1968)

    图  10  不同方法喷管黏型型面流场马赫数等值线分布 (张敏莉等2007). (a) Sivells方法喷管, (b) 新的短化喷管

    图  11  不同方法喷管流场校测喷管出口马赫数分布 (张敏莉等2007). (a) Sivells方法喷管, (b) 新的短化喷管

    图  12  不同轴线马赫数预设方法的喷管出口马赫数 (胡振震等2016)

    图  13  边界层与位流型线示意图

    图  14  实际特性线反射与设计特性线反射之间的滞后性问题 (Craddock 2000, Chan et al. 2018)

    图  15  基于CFD的设计优化流程 (Korte et al. 1992d)

    图  16  Chan等方法优化喷管的初始型线和最终型线对比$ (Ma = 7) $ (Chan et al. 2018)

    图  17  Chan等CFD分析设计方法和MOC/BL的喷管出口流动特性比较 (Chan et al. 2018). (a) 马赫数, (b)气流倾斜度, (c) 静压, (d)皮托管压力

    图  18  基于CFD的迭代优化方法流程图 (唐蓓等2019)

    图  19  温度、压力对比热容比的影响 (易仕和等2013)

    图  20  在相同面积比时比热容比对喷管型线的影响 (Johnson et al. 1975)

    图  21  喷管壁面压力对比 (Zonars 1967)

    图  22  真实气体和理想气体喷管设计数值结果比较 (Korte 2000). (a) 轴线马赫数分布, (b) 喷管出口马赫数分布

    图  23  喷管型线的样条插值修正 (Shope 2005)

    图  24  $ Ma = 17 $喷管迭代修正优化结果. (a1) 无黏型线计算得到的初值流场, (a2) 迭代第一次结果, (a3) 迭代第二次结果; (b) 喷管出口马赫数分布 (唐蓓等2019)

    图  25  马赫数与面积比关系 (唐蓓等2019)

    图  26  Ma=6喷管出口马赫数分布对比 (唐蓓等2019)

    表  1  $ Ma = 6 $喷管流场马赫数均匀性 (唐蓓等2019)

    出口平均马赫数最大马赫数偏差马赫数分布均方根
    模型16.240.0760.039
    模型26.700.0380.013
    模型35.960.0250.010
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-01-30
  • 录用日期:  2020-08-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2020-09-03
  • 刊出日期:  2021-06-25

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