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燃气涡轮发动机关键部件疲劳小裂纹研究进展

赵高乐 齐红宇 李少林 杨晓光 石多奇

赵高乐, 齐红宇, 李少林, 杨晓光, 石多奇. 燃气涡轮发动机关键部件疲劳小裂纹研究进展. 力学进展, 2023, 53(4): 819-865 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-019
引用本文: 赵高乐, 齐红宇, 李少林, 杨晓光, 石多奇. 燃气涡轮发动机关键部件疲劳小裂纹研究进展. 力学进展, 2023, 53(4): 819-865 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-019
Zhao G L, Qi H Y, Li S L, Yang X G, Shi D Q. Review of fatigue small cracks in key components of gas turbine engines. Advances in Mechanics, 2023, 53(4): 819-865 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-019
Citation: Zhao G L, Qi H Y, Li S L, Yang X G, Shi D Q. Review of fatigue small cracks in key components of gas turbine engines. Advances in Mechanics, 2023, 53(4): 819-865 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-019

燃气涡轮发动机关键部件疲劳小裂纹研究进展

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-23-019
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金资助项目(51975027)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵高乐, 现为北京航空航天大学能源与动力工程学院博士生. 主要从事极端服役环境下航空发动机高温结构的寿命强度分析研究工作. 在《力学进展》《International Journal of Fatigue》《Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics》《Rare Metals》《Materials Science and Technology》等期刊发表SCI/EI论文5篇

    李少林, 北京航空航天大学副教授、硕士生导师. 一直从事航空发动机高温部件结构强度的基础理论和方法研究, 主持国家自然基金面上/青年项目、“两机”专项课题等30余项, 在《力学进展》《International Journal of Fatigue》《Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures》《Ceramics International》等期刊发表SCI/EI论文20余篇、出版译著1部

    通讯作者:

    lishaolin@buaa.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: V239

Review of fatigue small cracks in key components of gas turbine engines

More Information
  • 摘要: 疲劳小裂纹扩展作为疲劳开裂过程中的关键阶段之一, 显著影响着材料和结构的疲劳断裂过程. 因具有速率波动和扩展路径偏转等特点, 小裂纹效应给材料和结构疲劳寿命预测结果带来了不确定性, 从而影响燃气涡轮发动机等机械结构的服役安全. 本文围绕燃气涡轮发动机关键部件材料的疲劳小裂纹扩展问题, 首先总结了当前疲劳小裂纹的扩展规律及其对疲劳寿命的影响规律; 其次, 针对先进燃气涡轮发动机关键部件常用的多晶合金和单晶合金, 揭示了疲劳小裂纹的萌生和扩展机理; 再次, 对疲劳小裂纹扩展模型进行了总结, 且指出了各模型的优缺点; 从次, 重点针对先进燃气涡轮发动机热端部件的工作环境, 综述了热腐蚀/氧化介质中的疲劳小裂纹扩展行为和模型; 最后, 对当前疲劳小裂纹相关研究进行了总结, 且结合燃气涡轮发动机领域提出了未来的研究趋势与方向. 本文以期为先进燃气涡轮发动机关键部件的设计、安全评估和寿命预测提供理论知识和科学方法.

     

  • 图  1  不同尺度下的裂纹划分

    图  2  Pearson (1975)的疲劳小裂纹扩展试验结果

    图  3  Ye等(2017a)的疲劳裂纹扩展数据 (其中Ni是检测到裂纹尺寸首次扩展的循环次数)

    图  4  (a)高温合金Inconel 718在室温和500 ℃下的疲劳小裂纹扩展行为(Goto et al. 2002), (b)碳钢S45C的旋转弯曲疲劳小裂纹扩展行为(Tokaji et al. 1988)

    图  5  预制裂纹和普通平板试样疲劳期间裂纹的生长(Miller 1982)

    图  6  (a)应力比R为0.1时, 不同峰值应力对合金裂纹扩展速率的影响规律 (缺陷左侧裂纹)(Yang et al. 2022), (b)FGH96合金 (σmax = 950 MPa) 和Ti–6Al–4V合金 (σmax = 690 MPa) 在不同应力比下裂纹长度a和裂纹扩展速率的规律(Liu et al. 2023, Caton et al. 2012)

    图  7  不同材料微观组织对疲劳小裂纹扩展规律的影响. (a) Inconel 617晶粒尺寸对小裂纹扩展速率的影响(Liang et al. 2022), (b) 650 ℃下GH4169晶粒尺寸对小裂纹扩展速率的影响(Zhu et al. 2019), (c) CP-Ti合金中微孔隙尺寸对疲劳小裂纹扩展速率的影响(Tao et al. 2023)

    图  8  定向凝固合金DZ4和单晶合金NBSCS在不同温度下的小裂纹扩展速率(Ma & Shi 2012, Liang et al. 2019)

    图  9  不含夹杂物材料的多阶段型S-N曲线(Mughrabi 2006)

    图  10  从LCF到VHCF区域不同合金的疲劳裂纹萌生机制. Ni200 (Chan et al. 2009); FGH96 (Shi et al. 2020); 贝氏体/马氏体多相钢(Gui et al. 2021); GH4169 (Qin et al. 2023a)

    图  11  从裂纹萌生到最终断裂的整个疲劳过程示意图. (a)表面滑移引起的裂纹萌生和(b)内部缺陷引起的裂纹萌生

    图  12  高强度低合金钢SCM435的奥氏体晶界对疲劳小裂纹扩展的影响(Tokaji et al. 1986b). (a)小尺寸晶粒, (b)大尺寸晶粒

    图  13  多晶合金的疲劳小裂纹扩展机制. (a)晶界对小裂纹扩展的影响行为, (b1) ~ (b4)疲劳小裂纹扩展的原位显微图像(Tao et al. 2023)

    图  14  不同取向单晶合金的疲劳小裂纹萌生和扩展过程. (a) ~ (d)[001], (e) ~ (f)[111] (Zhang et al. 2019); (i) ~ (k)固定循环数下源于孔隙处的疲劳小裂纹扩展行为(Gall et al. 2004)

    图  15  区分了微观结构小裂纹、物理小裂纹和长裂纹三个区域的Kitagawa-Takahashi示意图

    图  16  Kitagawa-Takahashi图中纯疲劳和热腐蚀疲劳的损伤机制比较. (a)纯疲劳和(b)热腐蚀疲劳(Chan et al. 2013)

    图  17  预制坑试样疲劳试验的修正Kitagawa-Takahashi图. (a)空气和300 × 10−6 Cl溶液, (b) 6 × 10−6 Cl溶液(Schönbauer et al. 2014)

    图  18  考虑裂纹萌生位置的疲劳强度预测结果(Qian et al. 2020)

    图  19  使用FIP方法预测的HCF和VHCF寿命与实际寿命的比较

    图  20  VHCF第3阶段下疲劳裂纹萌生寿命的预测结果, 根据方程(9)计算

    图  21  含晶界特征的疲劳小裂纹模型 (不同扭转角和倾斜角) 预测结果对比(Panwar et al. 2018)

    图  22  不同裂纹扩展参量和小裂纹扩展速率之间的关系对比. (a) GH4169合金的驱动力参数应力强度因子K与裂纹扩展速率, (b)不同温度下的镍基单晶合金NBSCS的驱动力参数塑性区尺寸rp和小裂纹扩展速率, (c) GH4169合金的驱动力参数裂纹张开位移CTOD与裂纹扩展速率, (d) 2024-T3铝合金的驱动力参数应变能强度因子范围∆S和小裂纹扩展速率(强度因子范围∆S和小裂纹扩展速率(Zhang et al. 2022, Liang et al. 2019, Sih & Tang 2014)

    图  23  不同取向的CMSX-4合金在高温环境中的裂纹扩展模式(Chen et al. 2023). (a) ~ (d)不同取向的试样, (e)不同温度下裂纹的扩展模式

    图  24  腐蚀疲劳小裂纹及其腐蚀层形貌

    图  25  汽轮机叶片钢FV566在空气和腐蚀环境 (90 ℃: 300 × 10−9 Cl + 300 × 10−9 $ {\mathrm{S}\mathrm{O}}_{4}^{2-} $) 中的小裂纹和长裂纹扩展速率(Turnbull & Zhou 2012)

    图  26  不同腐蚀坑尺寸下, X65钢的裂纹扩展速率与裂纹长度的关系图(Fatoba & Akid 2022)

    图  27  (a)VHCF下R5钢腐蚀坑处的疲劳裂纹萌生(Pérez-Mora et al. 2015), (b) HCF下IN718合金腐蚀层处的疲劳裂纹萌生(Pradhan et al. 2018), (c) VHCF下铸钢G42CrMo4在500 ℃环境中的断裂表面和(d)裂纹萌生位置放大图(Schmiedel et al. 2020)

    表  1  小裂纹的分类及特点

    小裂纹类型裂纹尺寸主要影响因素理论框架
    微观小裂纹a<d材料微观组织结构, 如晶粒取向、
    晶界以及第二相等
    不适用连续介质力学
    力学小裂纹a<rp裂纹尖端塑性区诱导闭合 (物理小裂纹
    也包含部分力学小裂纹)
    修正的弹性断裂力学和
    弹塑性断裂力学
    物理小裂纹a>da<1 mm
    化学小裂纹a较大裂纹尖端环境类型需考虑环境因素
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-05-31
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