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柔性钙钛矿太阳能电池机械稳定性研究进展

张美合 李志浩 李红刚 张超

张美合, 李志浩, 李红刚, 张超. 柔性钙钛矿太阳能电池机械稳定性研究进展. 力学进展, 2022, 52(2): 311-338 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-057
引用本文: 张美合, 李志浩, 李红刚, 张超. 柔性钙钛矿太阳能电池机械稳定性研究进展. 力学进展, 2022, 52(2): 311-338 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-057
Zhang M H, Li Z H, Li H G, Zhang C. A review on the mechanical stability of flexible perovskite solar cells. Advances in Mechanics, 2022, 52(2): 311-338 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-057
Citation: Zhang M H, Li Z H, Li H G, Zhang C. A review on the mechanical stability of flexible perovskite solar cells. Advances in Mechanics, 2022, 52(2): 311-338 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-057

柔性钙钛矿太阳能电池机械稳定性研究进展

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-057
基金项目: 结构力学行为科学与技术创新引智基地(BP0719007)、国家自然科学基金(51706187)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张超, 西北工业大学教授、博导, 民航学院副院长. 从事航空复合材料结构力学、新能源器件机械稳定性、多尺度多场耦合仿真方法等方面的研究工作, 主持国家自然科学基金、陕西省国际合作等项目20余项, 在《Compos Sci Technol》《Compos Part A》《J Power Sources》《Inter J Eng Sci》等领域内高影响力期刊发表论文80余篇, Google Scholar引用1700余次, H因子23, 参编中英文专著4部. 受邀担任国内外学术会议执行主席、分会主席20余次, 发表特邀报告20余次. 曾获2016年获世界计算力学大会旅行奖 (Travel Award) , 2017年入选国家级青年人才项目和陕西省青年百人, 2018年获爆炸力学优秀青年学者, 2021年获国家自然科学基金委和欧盟委员会“中欧人才项目”

    通讯作者:

    chaozhang@nwpu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TM914.4

A review on the mechanical stability of flexible perovskite solar cells

More Information
  • 摘要: 钙钛矿太阳能电池凭借其低成本、高效能等优点近期备受科研领域的关注, 其光电转换效率已从初始的3.8%迅速提高到25.5%. 其中沉积于聚合物衬底的柔性钙钛矿太阳能电池相比刚性钙钛矿太阳能电池具有质量小、易弯曲等特点, 更适用于实际生产生活. 然而, 其光伏性能相比于刚性钙钛矿太阳能电池还存在一定的差距, 同时柔性电池在较大变形下的机械稳定性问题是影响其投入商业使用的主要瓶颈. 本文综述了近年来国内外科研团队在提升柔性钙钛矿太阳能电池机械稳定性方面的研究成果, 并从材料调控与结构创新两个方面进行了总结概述, 为柔性钙钛矿太阳能电池机械稳定性和综合效率的进一步提升提供了参考与建议. 此外, 针对柔性钙钛矿太阳能电池的创新发展与应用拓展, 简述了基于柔性钙钛矿太阳能电池的集能、储能、传感一体化柔性器件的研究现状与发展前景.

     

  • 图  1  (a) 钙钛矿材料理想晶体结构 (Kojima et al. 2009) , (b)沉积在TiO2表面的CH3NH3PbI3形貌 (Kojima et al. 2009) , (c)钙钛矿器件横截面SEM图及部分层间放大图 (Lee M et al. 2012b)

    图  2  柔性钙钛矿太阳能电池机械稳定性综述构想图

    图  3  (a) 用于钙钛矿太阳能制备材料的热膨胀系数 (Moloney et al. 2020) , (b) 热膨胀系数差别引起的晶格拉伸压缩应变 (Moloney et al. 2020) , (c) 改变I和Br的比例进而改变带隙宽度 (Moloney et al. 2020) , (d) 基于第一性原理密度泛函理论 (DFT) 方法计算拉伸应变, 无应变, 压缩应变下的能带结构 (Zhu et al. 2019)

    图  4  (a) A位阳离子替换示意图及引入Na+与EA+ J-V曲线对比 (Nishimura et al. 2019) , (b) 面外与面内晶格参数XRD衍射测量示意图 (Shai et al. 2018) , (c) MA(1Zn:100Pb)I3-xClx晶体面外与面内晶格参数XRD衍射图 (Shai et al. 2018) , (d) MA(1Zn:100Pb)I3-xClx晶体在垂直与水平方向产生压缩应变示意图 (Shai et al. 2018)

    图  5  (a) 添加PEG对钙钛矿晶体质量影响SEM图像及其对钙钛矿太阳能电池光伏性能影响 (Chang et al. 2015b) , (b) DS添加获得更大钙钛矿晶粒尺寸SEM图像及其对钙钛矿太阳能电池光伏性能影响 (Feng et al. 2018) , (c) 在 5000 次弯曲循环后, 基于MAPbI3-DS的柔性器件在不同弯曲曲率半径下的PCE变化 (Feng et al. 2018)

    图  6  (a) 仿“珍珠层”结构引入SBS与PU的钙钛矿材料示意图 (Hu et al. 2019) , (b) 柔性PSCs作为贴合人体皮肤的电源可为智能手表供电 (Hu et al. 2019) , (c) 引入SBS与PU材料弯曲, 拉伸载荷有限元仿真结果对比 (Hu et al. 2019) , (d) 分别在 0%, 10% 和 20% 拉伸应变量下测量的柔性PSCs J-V 曲线 (Hu et al. 2019)

    图  7  (a) PVA 在晶体边界处聚集及在钙钛矿薄膜中提供的保护机制 (Wang et al. 2021) , (b) 以PVA为添加剂的水分触发自修复机制 (Wang et al. 2021) , (c) 光电探测器响应程度在自修复过程中的变化, 干燥和潮湿环境的相对湿度分别为 5% 和 80% (Wang et al. 2021)

    图  8  (a) 分段互联式结构不同拉伸应变下有限元仿真结果 (Xu et al. 2013) , (b) 分段互联式结构电极示意图 (Xu et al. 2013) , (c) 平面结构, 波浪结构, 悬浮波浪结构应变分布有限元仿真比对 (Qi et al. 2015) , (d) 悬浮电极阵列制备流程示意图 (Qi et al. 2015)

    图  9  (a)基于Kirigami结构的拉伸、弯曲、褶皱示意图 (Wang et al. 2017) , (b) 基于Kirigami结构FPSCs结构示意图 ( Li H et al. 2020) , (c) 基于Kirigami结构FPSCs在不同应变量及拉伸循环次数下的光电性能变化 ( Li H et al. 2020)

    图  10  (a)“脊柱型”结构 (Qian et al. 2018) , (b) “Zigzag”型 (Liao et al. 2018) , (c) 新型双向蛇形折纸结构 (Li N et al. 2021)

    图  11  (a) 正式结构 (n-i-p) , (b) 反式结构 (p-i-n) , (c) 加热过程钙钛矿生长示意图, (d) 退火过程热应力促进裂纹产生示意图

    图  12  (a) 柔性钙钛矿凹弯曲与凸弯曲示意图 (Yang et al. 2019) , (b) 凹凸弯曲下光电性能测试曲线 (Yang et al. 2019) , (c) 为柔性钙钛矿太阳能电池引入保护层示意图 (Lee et al. 2019) , (d) 有无保护层对柔性PSCs性能影响 (Lee et al. 2019)

    图  13  (a) 仿人体脊椎结构钙钛矿材料示意图 (Meng et al. 2020 ) , (b)弯折前后钙钛矿材料表面SEM图像对比 (Meng et al. 2020 ) , (c) 基于 PEDOT:EVA 和 PEDOT:PSS 的柔性PSCs有限元仿真结果对比 (Meng et al. 2020 ) , (d) PEDOT:EVA释放应力示意图 (Meng et al. 2020 ) , (e) 引入PEDOT:EVA前后柔性PSCs归一化PCE随弯折循环次数变化曲线图 (Meng et al. 2020 )

    图  14  (a) CH3NH3PbI3太阳能电池与超级电容器集成示意图及实物图 (Xu X et al. 2015) , (b) PSCs与SC一体式集成 (Liu et al. 2017) , (c) 柔性固体电容器制备原理图 (Du et al. 2015)

    图  15  (a) 集能储能传感器件集成工作原理图 (Gurung et al. 2017) , (b) 利用DC-DC升压转换器实现PSCs与LIC集成 (Gurung et al. 2017) , (c) 太阳能电池与储能器件集成效率对比图 (Li C et al. 2019) , (d) 集能储能传感器件未来设想示意图 (Li C et al. 2019)

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-19
  • 录用日期:  2022-01-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-02-14
  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-25

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