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金属增材制造若干关键力学问题研究进展

廉艳平 王潘丁 高杰 刘继凯 李取浩 刘长猛 贺小帆 高亮 李好 雷红帅 李会民 肖登宝 郭旭 方岱宁

廉艳平, 王潘丁, 高杰, 刘继凯, 李取浩, 刘长猛, 贺小帆, 高亮, 李好, 雷红帅, 李会民, 肖登宝, 郭旭, 方岱宁. 金属增材制造若干关键力学问题研究进展. 力学进展, 2021, 51(3): 648-701 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-037
引用本文: 廉艳平, 王潘丁, 高杰, 刘继凯, 李取浩, 刘长猛, 贺小帆, 高亮, 李好, 雷红帅, 李会民, 肖登宝, 郭旭, 方岱宁. 金属增材制造若干关键力学问题研究进展. 力学进展, 2021, 51(3): 648-701 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-037
Lian Y P, Wang P D, Gao J, Liu J K, Li Q H, Liu C M, He X F, Gao L, Li H, Lei H S, Li H M, Xiao D B, Guo X, Fang D N. Fundamental mechanics problems in metal additive manufacturing: A state-of-art review. Advances in Mechanics, 2021, 51(3): 648-701 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-037
Citation: Lian Y P, Wang P D, Gao J, Liu J K, Li Q H, Liu C M, He X F, Gao L, Li H, Lei H S, Li H M, Xiao D B, Guo X, Fang D N. Fundamental mechanics problems in metal additive manufacturing: A state-of-art review. Advances in Mechanics, 2021, 51(3): 648-701 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-037

金属增材制造若干关键力学问题研究进展——

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-037
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(11972086, 12002031, 12027901, 12072029, 52075195)、科技部重点研发计划(2017YFB1104003)、装备发展部预先研究项目(41423010102)、国防基础科研计划(JCKY2016110C012)资助.
详细信息
    作者简介:

    廉艳平, 男, 1985年出生, 北京理工大学先进结构技术研究院教授、博导. 现任中国力学学会固体力学专业委员会委员, 数据驱动的计算力学方法专业组成员, 《力学学报》《计算力学学报》《Materials》期刊编委等. 2007年获哈尔滨工程大学工程力学学士学位, 2012年获清华大学力学博士学位, 2012—2014年在清华大学航天航空学院、2014—2018年在美国西北大学机械工程系开展博士后研究. 主要从事于计算固体力学, 具体包括冲击侵彻计算力学、增材制造多场多尺度耦合、数据驱动计算方法等问题的研究. 目前主持基础加强重点项目、中组部海外高层次人才项目、国家自然科学基金面上项目,参与国家自然科学基金重大仪器等项目. 曾获国际增材制造数值模拟挑战赛第1名(AM-Bench 2018)、中国大学出版社优秀学术著作奖、清华大学优秀博士学位论文及美国西北大学博士后Travel Award等荣誉

    通讯作者:

    yanping.lian@bit.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O341

Fundamental mechanics problems in metal additive manufacturing: A state-of-art review

More Information
  • 摘要: 金属增材制造是一种兼顾复杂结构和高性能构件成形需求的颠覆性制造技术, 在航空、航天、交通、核电等领域具有广阔的应用前景和发展空间. 该技术大规模推广应用所面临的制造效率和控形保性挑战是一个涉及力学、光学、材料、机械、控制等多学科交叉的难题. 本文针对其中涉及的若干关键力学问题, 阐述了近年来国内外在面向金属增材制造的结构拓扑优化设计、制造过程数值模拟、成形材料与结构的缺陷表征和性能评价方面的研究进展, 并对金属增材制造的结构设计−制造模拟−性能评价的发展趋势进行了展望.

     

  • 图  1  金属增材制造技术原理示意图. (a)激光选区熔融技术(PBF_LB), (b)激光立体成形技术/激光近净成形技术(DED_LB), (c)电子束选区熔融技术(PBF_EB), (d)电子束送丝增材制造技术(DED_EB), (e)电弧送丝增材制造技术(DED_ARC)

    图  2  金属增材制造的三个关键力学问题: 面向增材制造的拓扑优化设计、数值模拟、缺陷表征与性能评价

    图  3  (a) 最小特征尺寸约束, 结果来源于Zhu等(2021), (b) 悬角约束, 结果来源于Gaynor等(2016), (c) 连通性约束, 结果来源于Xiong等(2020)

    图  4  混合型路径与结构拓扑的协同优化设计结果 (Dapogny et al. 2019). (a)悬臂梁, (b) L形梁

    图  5  (a) 金属增材制造构件的开裂现象 (Cheng et al. 2019), (b) 基于固有应变法的残余应力与变形计算结果(Chen et al. 2019), (c) 金属增材制造的变形约束拓扑优化支撑结构(Zhang et al. 2020)

    图  6  卫星支架三类设计及其制造原型(Zhu et al. 2021): (a)传统拓扑优化设计; (b)点阵结构填充式设计; (c)实体−点阵填充式设计

    图  7  仅具备单一类型微结构的多尺度填充式设计案例. (a) 二维多孔材料周期性设计(Li et al. 2016), (b) 三维周期性点阵材料设计(He et al. 2017)

    图  8  材料/结构多尺度优化设计结果. (a)(b)多类微结构多尺度设计模型及其增材制造样例 (Xiao et al. 2021), (c)考虑宏观结构拓扑、多类微结构拓扑与多类微结构在宏观结构内分布的多尺度设计 (Gao et al. 2019a)

    图  9  不同周期性约束的桥梁结构设计. (a) 骨骼类结构尺度相关多尺度设计(Wu et al. 2018), (b) 座椅类结构尺度相关多尺度设计 (Wu J et al. 2021)

    图  10  增材制造数值模拟研究方向经同行评议发表的论文数量(该数据基于Web of Science 数据库统计, 采用的关键词搜索组合为“additive manufacturing”或者“3D printing”和“numerical simulation”)

    图  11  基于高保真“热−流”耦合模型的数值模拟. (a) PBF_LB 316L不锈钢粉末的温度和速度场计算结果, 其中红色射线表示激光光束 (Khairallah et al. 2020); (b) DED_LB IN625合金粉末落入熔池过程的计算结果 (Aggarwal et al. 2021); (c) DED_EB Ti-6Al-4V丝材熔化过程计算结果(Hu et al. 2018)

    图  12  基于等效连续体假设“热−流”耦合模型的数值模拟. (a)DED_LB增材制造IN718粉末熔融成形过程的计算结果 (Lian et al. 2019), (b) DED_ARC增材制造H13工具钢丝材熔融成形过程的计算结果 (Ou et al. 2018)

    图  13  基于“热−固”耦合模型的数值模拟. (a) PBF_LB 增材制造IN718材料成形立方体的残余应力分布及变形模式计算结果 (Denliner et al. 2017), (b) DED_ARC增材制造ER70S-6材料成形4层薄壁件的应力分布计算结果 (Huang et al. 2020)

    图  14  基于“热−流−固”强耦合模型的数值模拟. (a) PBF_LB 增材制造IN718合金粉末成形过程计算结果 (Dao et al. 2021), (b) DED_LB增材制造 S390不锈钢粉末成形过程计算结果 (Wang H et al. 2020)

    图  15  基于相场模型的微观组织数值模拟. (a)DED_LB增材制造Ti-Nb合金凝固二维枝晶形貌计算结果 (Gong et al. 2015), (b) PBF_EB增材制造Ti-6Al-4V合金凝固二维枝晶形貌计算结果(Chu et al. 2020), (c) PBF_L增材制造 AlSi10Mg合金凝固三维枝晶形貌计算结果 (Park et al. 2020)

    图  16  基于晶粒尺度CA方法的微观组织数值模拟. (a) DED_LB增材制造IN718合金凝固微观组织计算结果 (Lian et al. 2019), (b) PBF_EB增材制造Ti-6Al-4V合金凝固初始相计算结果 (Xiong et al. 2021)

    图  17  基于顺序耦合的金属增材制造“过程−组织−性能”多尺度多物理场耦合模拟方法

    图  18  增材制造构件典型缺陷特征(Suard et al. 2015, Liu L et al. 2017, Amani et al. 2018)

    图  19  100 kN力学在位加载CT成像装置及增材制造样件在位表征结果

    图  20  点阵结构的有限元建模. (a) 实体单元模型 (Babamiri et al. 2020), (b)实体单元与梁单元模型的仿真结果对比(Guo et al. 2020), (c)对称边界的梁单元模型(Ruiz et al. 2020), (d)周期性边界的实体单元模型(Jia et al. 2020), (e)图像有限元模型(Amani et al. 2018)

    图  21  典型断面 (Sterling et al. 2016). (a)锻造Ti–6Al–4V合金材料及其, (b)裂纹萌生位置, (c) DED_LB 增材制造Ti–6Al–4V合金材料及其, (d)裂纹萌生位置, (e)退火DED_LB 增材制造Ti–6Al–4V合金材料及其, (f)裂纹萌生位置

    图  22  原始和修正后的K-T图 (Hu et al. 2020)

    图  23  缺陷等效法则(Murakami et al. 2019). (a)不规则内部缺陷, (b)不规则表面缺陷, (c)不规则亚表面缺陷, (d)两相邻缺陷, (e)倾斜表面缺陷

    图  24  增材制造金属材料冲击试验常用试样制备示意图. (a) OZ试样, (b)OX试样

    图  25  PBF_LB增材制造AlSi10Mg_200C合金材料不同应变率加载下的应力应变曲线(Asgari et al. 2018). (a) OX试样, (b) OZ试样

    图  26  PBF_LB增材制造GP1不锈钢材料动态力学性能(史同亚等2019). (a)不同应变率下单轴拉伸试样的真实应力−应变曲线, (b)不同初始速度下平板撞击试样的层裂剖面, (c)初始层裂的微观金相显示微孔洞形核于冶金界面结合处

    图  27  PBF_LB增材制造AlSi10Mg合金材料在激光冲击加载下的实验结果(Laurencon et al. 2019). (a)冲击加载方向示意图; (b)试样的雨贡纽弹性极限(Hugoniot elastic limit)值对比; (c) 层裂面上的不同断裂模式, 黄色圆圈为“池间”断裂模式, 红色圆圈为“池内”断裂模式

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-06-29
  • 录用日期:  2021-08-02
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-25
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-25

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