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飞行器非线性气动伺服弹性力学

黄锐 胡海岩

黄锐, 胡海岩. 飞行器非线性气动伺服弹性力学. 力学进展, 2021, 51(3): 428-466 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-010
引用本文: 黄锐, 胡海岩. 飞行器非线性气动伺服弹性力学. 力学进展, 2021, 51(3): 428-466 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-010
Huang R, Hu H Y. Nonlinear aeroservoelasticity of aircraft. Advances in Mechanics, 2021, 51(3): 428-466 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-010
Citation: Huang R, Hu H Y. Nonlinear aeroservoelasticity of aircraft. Advances in Mechanics, 2021, 51(3): 428-466 doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-010

飞行器非线性气动伺服弹性力学——

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-21-010
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金 (11972180, 12022203)资助项目.
详细信息
    作者简介:

    胡海岩, 北京理工大学/南京航空航天大学教授, 中国科学院院士, 发展中国家科学院院士; 兼任国家科学技术奖励委员会委员, 中国科学院学部主席团成员, 国务院学位委员会力学学科评议组召集人, 中国振动工程学会理事长, 中国宇航学会副理事长. 曾任德国斯图加特大学洪堡基金研究员, 南京航空航天大学教授、校长, 北京理工大学校长, 中国力学学会理事长等. 长期从事飞行器结构动力学与控制的人才培养和科学研究; 培养全国/学科优秀博士学位论文获得者5人, 国家杰出/优秀青年科学基金获得者5人次; 在振动控制系统的非线性动力学、非局部弹性结构波动分析、飞行器设备的非线性隔振技术等领域取得重要进展, 近期主要从事多柔体系统动力学、气动伺服弹性力学等研究. 获国家自然科学奖2项、国家科技进步奖1项; 还荣获何梁何利科学技术奖、周培源力学奖、俄罗斯莫斯科大学名誉博士等

    通讯作者:

    hhyae@nuaa.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O32

Nonlinear aeroservoelasticity of aircraft

More Information
  • 摘要: 现代飞行器日益呈现结构轻质化、控制系统宽通带和高权限的发展趋势. 因此, 非定常气动力、柔性结构和主动控制系统三者间的耦合力学成为重要的研究领域. 自20世纪80年代起, 航空界开始关注受控飞行器的气动弹性稳定性以及主动控制问题, 但对气动/结构的非线性效应、控制回路时滞对受控飞行器动力学行为的影响规律研究尚不充分. 研究这些影响规律不仅涉及非线性、高维数、多变参数和时滞效应等难题, 而且必须面对空气动力、飞行器结构、驱动机构、控制系统之间的强耦合问题. 其中的前沿难题是: 发展非线性气动伺服弹性动力学建模理论, 揭示上述因素诱发受控气动弹性振动的动力学机理, 开展气动伺服弹性控制风洞实验. 本文针对非线性气动伺服弹性力学所涉及的非线性非定常气动力建模、非线性结构动力学、气动伺服弹性控制律设计、气动伺服弹性实验, 总结相关研究现状和最新进展, 特别是近年来作者学术团队的研究成果, 并对进一步研究给出若干建议.

     

  • 图  1  飞行器气动伺服弹性力学示意图. (a) 气动伺服弹性耦合关系, (b) 飞行器气动伺服弹性系统

    图  2  非线性气动伺服弹性力学中气动、结构、控制三者耦合

    图  3  基于非线性系统辨识的跨声速气动弹性分析. (a) 大幅值激励下的非定常广义力响应, (b) 非线性气动力诱发的极限环振荡, (c) 非线性气动力诱发的机翼“拍振”现象 (Yang et al. 2020)

    图  4  机翼控制面模态的定义. (a) BACT机翼表面气动网格, (b) 控制面偏转5度后的表面气动网格 (Huang et al. 2015a)

    图  5  考虑非线性气动效应的ASE系统频响曲线. (a) BACT机翼第二阶模态频响曲线 (Huang et al. 2014), (b) 三维弹性机翼气动伺服弹性频响曲线 (Huang et al. 2018)

    图  6  非定常气动力的数据驱动建模框图

    图  7  基于数据驱动和基于CFD的非定常气动力模型频率响应曲线对比. (a) 幅频响应曲线, (b) 相频响应曲线

    图  8  二元机翼跨声速颤振时非定常压力分布. (a) 直接流固耦合计算, (b) 数据驱动模型预测压力分布

    图  9  几类变体飞行器设计方案. (a) 可变展长机翼 (Yue et al. 2017), (b) 可变弯度机翼 (Chanzy & Keane 2018), (c) 可折叠式机翼 (Friswell & Inman 2006), (d) 智能变体机翼 (Weisshaar 2013)

    图  10  折叠翼模型气动伺服弹性频率响应随折叠角的变化规律. (a) 幅频响应曲面, (b) 相频响应曲面 (Huang et al. 2019)

    图  11  含控制面的折叠翼模型. (a) 折叠翼的有限元模型, (b) 铰链的双线性刚度

    图  12  基于参数化虚拟模态的固有频率分析. (a) 铰链为名义刚度, (b) 内铰链为软刚度, (c) 外铰链为软刚度, (d) 两铰链都为软刚度

    图  13  基于参数化虚拟模态的振型MAC值分析. (a) 折叠角为30度, (b) 折叠角为60度, (c) 折叠角为90度, (d) 折叠角为120度

    图  14  虚拟模态坐标下的线性子系统的频响特性分析 (0度折叠角, 风速13 m/s). (a) 两铰链都为名义刚度, (b) 两铰链均为软刚度

    图  15  非线性气动弹性系统的位移分岔图. (a) 0度折叠角, (b) 风速51 m/s

    图  16  30°折叠角下非线性气动伺服弹性系统的分岔图. (a) 控制面激励频率: 3.1 Hz, (b) 控制面激励频率: 5 Hz

    图  17  非线性气动伺服弹性闭环分析. (a) 抑制极限环运动, (b) 极限环幅值减小, (c) 混沌振动退化成稳定极限环振动

    图  18  飞翼布局飞行器的颤振研究. (a) 飞行器气动外形,(b) 鲁棒控制律设计框图 (Theis et al. 2016)

    图  19  大展弦比飞翼布局飞行器的颤振研究. (a) 飞行器气动外形, (b) 开环系统颤振特性 (Zou et al. 2021)

    图  20  飞翼布局飞行器的时滞反馈控制效果. (a) 闭环系统根轨迹分布, (b) 基于最小奇异值理论的鲁棒性分析

    图  21  线性自抗扰控制器闭环系统框图

    图  22  MIMO自抗扰AFS控制器性能. (a) 开闭环系统根轨迹对比, (b) 闭环系统最小奇异值曲线

    图  23  飞翼布局飞行器气动伺服弹性模型. (a) 飞翼布局飞行器有限元模型 (Schmidt 2016), (b) 飞翼布局飞行器体自由度颤振形态

    图  24  基于机器学习的颤振主动抑制控制律设计算法框架

    图  25  颤振主动抑制控制器性能对比. (a) 开闭环系统根轨迹对比, (b) 闭环系统最小奇异值对比

    图  26  三维机翼模型颤振主动抑制风洞试验. (a) 机翼模型安装图, (b) 传感器、作动器与控制面布置, (c) 颤振主动控制系统 (Huang et al. 2015b)

    图  27  三维机翼气动伺服弹性系统的理论建模与风洞实验对比. (a) 流速为20 m/s, (b) 流速为26 m/s (黄锐 2014)

    图  28  气动伺服弹性实验硬件系统 (黄锐 2014)

    图  29  五阶Butterworth滤波器的频响函数曲线

    图  30  计入时滞的颤振主动抑制. (a) 最优控制律执行框图, (b) 控制律施加前后的系统响应历程 (Huang et al. 2015b)

    图  31  三维机翼体自由度颤振特性试验 (Li & Pak 2015)

    图  32  3D打印大展弦比机翼气动弹性试验. (a) 半模飞翼布局无人机打印零件图, (b) 大展弦比机翼弯扭耦合颤振试验 (Pankonien et al. 2018)

    图  33  飞翼布局无人机全机气动弹性飞行试验 (Danowsky et al. 2018)

    表  1  预测非线性气动伺服弹性系统频率响应曲线的效率对比

    BACT机翼三维弹性机翼
    非线性系统辨识的ASE模型44.36 h71.188 h
    直接流固耦合的ASE模型316 h2990 h
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-01
  • 录用日期:  2021-04-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-04-13
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-25

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