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声学黑洞结构应用中的力学问题

季宏丽 黄薇 裘进浩 成利

季宏丽, 黄薇, 裘进浩, 成利. 声学黑洞结构应用中的力学问题[J]. 力学进展, 2017, 47(1): 333-384. doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-16-033
引用本文: 季宏丽, 黄薇, 裘进浩, 成利. 声学黑洞结构应用中的力学问题[J]. 力学进展, 2017, 47(1): 333-384. doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-16-033
JI Hongli, HUANG Wei, QIU Jinhao, CHENG Li. Mechanics problems in application of acoustic black hole structures[J]. Advances in Mechanics, 2017, 47(1): 333-384. doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-16-033
Citation: JI Hongli, HUANG Wei, QIU Jinhao, CHENG Li. Mechanics problems in application of acoustic black hole structures[J]. Advances in Mechanics, 2017, 47(1): 333-384. doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-16-033

声学黑洞结构应用中的力学问题

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-16-033
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    裘进浩, 南京航空航天大学教授, 博士生导师, 国家“千人计划”特聘专家, 教育部长江学者特聘教授, 美国机械工程学会会士(ASME Fellow). 1983和1986年分别于南京航空航天大学获得工学学士和工学硕士学位, 1996年获日本东北大学工学博士学位. 2004年晋升为日本东北大学教授, 是日本七所帝国大学第一位华人正教授. 2005年5月至7月任法国里昂国立应用科学技术学院(INSA-Lyon) 特聘教授. 2006年受聘于2005年度教育部长江学者特聘教授并回南京航空航天大学任教, 现任机械结构力学与控制国家重点实验室副主任, 并享受国务院特殊津贴.长期从事智能材料与结构研究, 包括结构的振动与噪声控制、流动控制、结构健康监测、能量回收、自适应结构、压电器件的精密传感与驱动技术等.自2006年作为项目首席承担了国家973计划, 国家自然科学基金重点项目, 国家863项目, 教育部重大培育基金, 江苏省攀登项目, 以及总装预研等多个研究项目.在国内外核心期刊上发表论文300余篇, 在国际会议上发表论文260余篇, 其中230余篇被SCI收录.申请国家发明专利70余项, 30余项已获授权.目前担任J. Intell. Mat. Syst. Struct., Int. J. Appl. Electromagnet. Mech., Int. J. of Aeron. Space Sci., Frontier of Mech. Eng.等多个国际学术刊物的副主编和编委.E-mail: qiu@nuaa.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB535

Mechanics problems in application of acoustic black hole structures

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    Corresponding author: QIU Jinhao
  • 摘要: 声学黑洞(acoustic black hole, ABH) 效应是利用薄壁结构几何参数或者材料特性参数的梯度变化, 使波在结构中的传播速度逐渐减小, 理想情况下波速减小至零从而不发生反射的现象.实现声学黑洞效应的主要方法是将薄板结构的厚度按照一定规律裁剪, 利用声学黑洞可以将结构中传播的波动能量聚集在特定的位置.声学黑洞对波的聚集具有宽频高效、实现方法简单灵活等特点, 在薄壁结构的减振降噪、能量回收等应用中具有明显的优势.本文介绍声学黑洞效应的基本原理、相关力学问题的研究进展和有待进一步探究的问题, 包括声学黑洞结构的建模与分析方法、实验研究方法及进展、声学黑洞结构中波的传播与操控, 以及声学黑洞在工程应用中的相关问题.

     

  • 图  1  一维声学黑洞结构中弹性波的传播

    图  2  内嵌于薄板结构中的二维声学黑洞

    图  3  典型的一维声学黑洞结构的楔形边缘

    图  4  两侧附着阻尼材料的有截断的一维声学黑洞结构

    图  5  声学黑洞区域覆盖不同厚度的阻尼层时反射系数随截断长度的变化规律

    图  6  阻尼层的弹性模量对反射系数的影响

    图  7  弯曲波倾斜入射到声学黑洞楔形边缘

    图  8  局部区域覆盖了阻尼层的声学黑洞结构的截面示意图

    图  9  反射系数R1与激励频率之间的关系(实线:厚度700 μm的阻尼层; 点虚线:厚度10 μm的阻尼层; 虚线:黑洞区域不贴阻尼层; 点线:无声学黑洞的均匀梁结构粘贴厚度700 μm的阻尼层) (Georgiev et al. 2011)

    图  10  一维声学黑洞结构中弹性波的传播

    图  11  厚度变化的阻尼材料对系统阻尼损失因子的影响, 厚度均匀的阻尼材料对应厚度为hd=0.005 cm, 阻尼材料分布的位置为xd=1~2 cm (Tang et al. 2016)

    图  12  阻尼层的刚度对系统响应的影响

    图  13  二维声学黑洞结构中弯曲波射线示意图

    图  14  声学黑洞结构h(r)=εrm中的弯曲波传播轨迹. (a) m=2, (b) m=3

    图  15  圆形声学黑洞板(移除其中的一部分为显示厚度的变化规律)

    图  16  圆形声学黑洞板的截面示意图

    图  17  特定频率下的位移响应. (a) f=0.22 kHz, (b) f=1.85 kHz, (c) f=3.74 kHz, (d) f=0.49 kHz, (e) f=1.20 kHz, (f) f=2.20 kHz, (g) f=0.98 kHz, (h) f=1.90 kHz, (i) f=3.10 kHz (O'Boy & Krylov 2011)

    图  18  带黑洞的圆板和不带黑洞环板在同一点处的机械导纳w˙ (Rm, θ=0, ω)/p (Rf) 的比较(O'Boy & Krylov 2011)

    图  19  (a) 辐射声功率在频域上的幅值, (b) 对应的结构表面加速度(其中黑色实线表示均匀板, 红色虚线为25个周期排布声学黑洞的板结构) (声学黑洞由于截断会在中心形成小孔) (Conlon et al. 2015b)

    图  20  (a) 模态损失因子, (b) 周期排布25个声学黑洞时板结构辐射声功率的幅频特性(其中黑色实线表示声学黑洞中心圆孔较大的情况, 红色虚线表示声学黑洞中心圆孔(ABH-SH) 较小的情况) (Conlon et al. 2015)

    图  21  (a) 数值仿真模型: (a1) 声学黑洞结构, (a2) 声学黑洞与阻尼材料(ABH-Damp) 结合, (a3) 声学黑洞与阻尼材料和动力吸振器(ABH-DVA) 结合; (b) 数值仿真结果(Jia et al. 2015)

    图  22  二维声学黑洞板结构的位移场. (a) 声学黑洞结构h=ε(r -r1)2 + h1, (b) 声学黑洞结构h=εr2

    图  23  非完美声学黑洞结构中不同截面位置上功率流随时间的变化

    图  24  内嵌二维声学黑洞的椭圆板的弯曲振动模型

    图  25  实验测量所得椭圆形板的速度场对比图. (a) 不含声学黑洞的椭圆板(8 671 Hz), (b) 含有声学黑洞的椭圆板(8 117 Hz)

    图  26  实验测量所得椭圆形板的点导纳对比图, 实线表示含声学黑洞并粘贴阻尼材料, 虚线表示不含声学黑洞但在同一位置粘贴同样面积的阻尼材料, 点划线表示不含声学黑洞但在整个试件上粘贴阻尼材料(Georgiev et al. 2011)

    图  27  结构的机械导纳. (a) 不含声学黑洞的结构, (b) 含有声学黑洞的结构(O'Boy & Krylov 2011)

    图  28  (a) 含有6个二维声学黑洞的板结构, (b) 板结构的加速度响应(实线为含有6个二维声学黑洞的板结构, 虚线为厚度均匀分布的板)

    图  29  (a) 复合材料蜂窝板, (b) 不同的声学黑洞截面示意图

    图  30  热效应声学黑洞结构实验设备示意图

    图  31  (a) 光学实验系统, (b) 测量结果

    图  32  激光超声实验系统

    图  33  激光超声实验测量的不同时刻的波场

    图  34  四种涡轮叶片试件. (a) 未扭曲的参考叶片, (b) 未扭曲含有一维声学黑洞边缘的叶片, (c) 扭曲的参考叶片, (d) 扭曲含有一维声学黑洞边缘的叶片

    图  35  四种涡轮叶片试件上的流动显示图. (a) 未扭曲的参考叶片, (b) 未扭曲含有一维声学黑洞边缘的叶片, (c) 未扭曲含有一维声学黑洞边缘的叶片边缘粘贴普通阻尼材料, (d) 未扭曲含有一维声学黑洞边缘的叶片边缘粘贴阻尼材料(该材料还原了参考叶片的几何外形)

    图  36  尖端直径按照幕函数形式减小的杆(尖端粘贴吸收材料)

    图  37  一维声学黑洞内嵌于网球拍的拍柄中

    图  38  汽车的引擎外壳结合二维声学黑洞板的样品图

    图  39  人工耳蜗实验设备

    图  40  (a) 声学黑洞管道结构示意图, (b) 实物图

    图  41  一维声学黑洞结构中弯曲波聚集而形成高能量密度区域

    图  42  在结构中等间距排布5个声学黑洞, 并在厚度变化区域粘贴压电换能器

    图  43  能量回收效果的数值计算结果图

    图  44  机电糯合模型

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  • 收稿日期:  2016-10-21
  • 网络出版日期:  2017-01-10
  • 刊出日期:  2017-02-24

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