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密集颗粒物质的介观结构

孙其诚 刘晓星 张国华 刘传奇 金峰

孙其诚, 刘晓星, 张国华, 刘传奇, 金峰. 密集颗粒物质的介观结构[J]. 力学进展, 2017, 47(1): 263-308. doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-16-021
引用本文: 孙其诚, 刘晓星, 张国华, 刘传奇, 金峰. 密集颗粒物质的介观结构[J]. 力学进展, 2017, 47(1): 263-308. doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-16-021
SUN Q C., Xiaoxing LIU, Guohua ZHANG, Chuanqi LIU, Feng JIN. The mesoscopic structures of dense granular materials[J]. Advances in Mechanics, 2017, 47(1): 263-308. doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-16-021
Citation: SUN Q C., Xiaoxing LIU, Guohua ZHANG, Chuanqi LIU, Feng JIN. The mesoscopic structures of dense granular materials[J]. Advances in Mechanics, 2017, 47(1): 263-308. doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-16-021

密集颗粒物质的介观结构

doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-16-021
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    孙其诚, 清华大学水利系副研究员, 博士生导师.从事颗粒介质力学和颗粒/流体两相流的基础研究, 应用于堆石坝变形机理分析、核反应堆球床颗粒流计算以及山地灾害起动和流动机理分析, 先后承担科技部973课题、国家自然科学基金重点项目、美国全球创新计划项目等.发表论文130余篇, 其中SCI论文90余篇, 出版《颗粒物质力学导论》《颗粒物质物理与力学》《Mechanics of Granular Matter》等专著3部, 获2015年度教育部科技进步一等奖.E-mail:qcsun@tsinghua.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O469;TV16

The mesoscopic structures of dense granular materials

More Information
  • 摘要: 密集颗粒物质由大量颗粒组成的多体相互作用体系,在一定条件下,颗粒互相连接,形成相对稳定的介观尺度结构,其几何和动力学性质较大程度上决定了颗粒体系的宏观物理和力学性质,因此开展颗粒的介观结构研究具有重要的理论价值,是科学的前沿之一.自然界的堆石坝、堰塞体和碎屑流,以及工程中的高温气冷堆堆芯颗粒流和先进核裂变能系统(ADS嬗变)的颗粒散裂靶等都是典型的颗粒体系,研究颗粒体系宏观力学性质是灾害预测和调控技术的关键.本文首先介绍颗粒接触力理论和简化模型的研究进展,接着介绍介观尺度结构分析方法与测量技术,颗粒体系Jamming转变、软点和颗粒微位移测量技术等,最后列举了几个关键的科学问题.颗粒介质中很多基本力学问题的解决需要借鉴物理和数学等学科的最新成果,建立新的概念和范式,从新的角度、思路、理念去认识颗粒介质的基本问题.同时,颗粒介质的基础研究还要紧密结合工程应用领域的大量相关的核心技术,与工程领域专家共同合作,使得颗粒介质的研究有的放矢,更具生命力.

     

  • 图  1  Hertz接触理论、JKR接触理论、DMT接触理论和Maugis-Dugdale 理论的适用范围

    图  2  美国Duke大学开展的颗粒光弹实验采用高速相机观测到了力链结构的演化过程(Clark et al.2015)

    图  3  二维双分散颗粒系统在不同颗粒含量φ时的径向分布函数.插图是第一峰高度g1φ的变化

    图  4  不同的颗粒粒径分散度s, 周期边界条件下二维颗粒体系的静态结构因子S(k) 云图(张国华课题组提供)

    图  5  不同颗粒粒径分散度条件下的静态结构因子S(k)k的变化.插图为二维和三维的单粒径颗粒体系的S(k)曲线低k部分数值拟合(冯旭等2013)

    图  6  不同压强下的波速. 实验测量结果(Domenico 1977,Makse et al.2004)与基于式(31)的计算结果对比

    图  7  声速和G/B的测量(a)横波声速和纵波声速随压强的变化实线为拟合曲线插图是声速纵横比随压强的变化(b)G/B随压强的变化(张攀等 2016)

    图  8  纵波声衰减系数随压强的变化(实线为幂率拟合曲线)

    图  9  二倍频振幅与基频振幅平方的比值 μ2w1w2随压强的变化关系图(实线为拟合曲线)

    图  10  颗粒物质等无序材料的Jamming 相图

    图  11  有摩擦颗粒体系的Jamming相图(Ciamarra et al.2011)

    图  12  变形前后的Delaunay三角剖分

    图  13  二维颗粒体系在双轴压缩时不同轴向应变时的局部非仿射应变较大颗粒的空间分布

    图  14  软点与颗粒重排图(深色点是软点插图箭头显示了颗粒非仿射位移)(Dong et al.2015)

    图  15  (a)塑性事件发生后归一化的非仿射位移图,(b)塑性事件发生前最低频率模式的极化矢量图,(c)投影系数α2随模式数的变化(这些本征模式由发生颗粒重排之前的体系计算而得,颗粒重排矢量为颗粒重排前后的位移)(插图: 投影系数的积累通过计算低于模式数的贡献总和而得(Dong et al.2015)

    图  16  (a)散斑能见度光谱技术测量转筒中颗粒的脉动速度装置和(b)脉动速度二阶矩的空间分布(亦即颗粒温度)(Li et al.2016)

    表  1  颗粒接触力测量技术汇总

    表  2  颗粒速度测量技术汇总

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  • 收稿日期:  2016-06-06
  • 修回日期:  2016-10-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2016-12-08
  • 刊出日期:  2017-02-24

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