首页 > 欢迎您访问力学进展网站! English

力学进展 ›› 2018, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (1): 201809-201809.doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-17-007

• 综述评论 • 上一篇    下一篇

软骨组织工程构建中的生物力学

张春秋, 李可, 高丽兰, 张西正   

  1. 天津市先进机电系统设计与智能控制重点实验室,天津理工大学机械工程学院,天津 300384
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-01 出版日期:2018-03-25 发布日期:2018-01-22
  • 作者简介:张春秋,男,天津理工大学机械工程学院教授、博士生导师
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(11432016), 国家自然科学基金(11672208, 11572222, 11402171, 11402172)资助

Biomechanics in cartilage tissue engineering

ZHANG Chunqiu, LI Ke, GAO Lilan, ZHANG Xizheng   

  1. Tianjin Key Laboratory of the Design and Intelligent Control of the Advanced Mechatronical System, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China
  • Received:2017-04-01 Online:2018-03-25 Published:2018-01-22

摘要:

关节软骨是关节表面具有弹性的承重组织, 其结构复杂, 由固体相和液体相组成. 固体相包括胶原纤维、蛋白多糖等, 属纤维增强型复合结构; 液体相包括水、电解质等.关节软骨提供了一个低磨损和低摩擦的光滑界面, 起缓冲振动和传递载荷等支撑作用. 由于膝关节承受的运动量大、应力高, 关节软骨损伤在临床上较为常见. 但软骨内没有血管, 代谢缓慢, 其损伤后难以实现自我修复. 组织工程从理论上建立了一种治疗软骨缺损的理想方法, 但尚未成为临床上常规的治疗选择. 如何获得结构和功能相匹配, 同时适用于临床治疗的工程软骨, 至今仍是亟需解决的问题.在体外构建功能化工程软骨, 关键在于运用生物反应器对组织施加合适的力学载荷: 首先保证工程软骨复合体内信号分子、营养和废物的有效运输; 其次对支架内种子细胞产生特定的力学刺激; 同时促进细胞外基质结构与功能的适应性发展.本文对力学载荷在软骨组织工程构建中的应用进展加以综述: 按照作用于组织层面的力学载荷传递所需的介质属性, 将其分为液体介导、固体介导和其他媒质介导三种类型, 重点关注不同载荷对工程软骨功能化构建的作用和效果; 分析讨论软骨组织工程构建中存在的关键生物力学问题; 总结和展望软骨组织工程未来的发展趋势.软骨组织工程体外培养需要考虑力学载荷和生化刺激的耦合作用; 在合适的生化条件下进行滚动、滑动和压缩复合加载, 将有利于工程软骨的体外功能化构建.

关键词: 关节软骨, 组织工程, 力学载荷, 生物力学, 力学生物学

Abstract:

Articular cartilage is one kind of elastic loaded tissues. Its complex structure contains solid and liquid phases. The solid phase consists of collagens and proteoglycans, and the liquid phase consists of water and electrolyte. The microstructure of the solid phase is a type of fiber reinforced composites. Articular cartilage provides a smooth interface with low wear and friction, and plays an important role in buffering shocks, transferring loading and etc. The knee joint is subjected to a large amount of exercise and high stress, which make the articular cartilage injury common in clinic. Since there is no blood supply in cartilage tissues, they are difficult to heal once injury. Tissue engineering provides an ideal method for the treatment of defects in cartilages. Although cartilage tissue engineering has started to be applied in clinic, but the method is not widely employed. How to get the engineered cartilage, and which structure and function are suitable for the clinical use are still remaining problems to be solved. The key to the construction of functional engineered cartilage in vitro is to apply appropriate mechanical conditions in bioreactors. First, the loads ensure the effective transportation of the internal signals, nutrients and wastes; second, it is necessary to apply specific mechanical stimulations on seed cells in scaffolds; third, it needs to promote the development of the structure and function of extracellular matrix. This paper reviews the latest research in cartilage tissue engineering. This review categorizes the mechanical stimuli into three types according to different medias during the process of load transfer: namely, liquid-mediated forces, solid-mediated forces and other forces. This paper analyzes the major biomechanical problems in cartilage tissue engineering and predicts the trend of future developments. At last, this paper suggests that the synergy of mechanical and biochemical stimuli should be taken into account in cartilage tissue construction. In this way, rolling-sliding-compression load accompanied by appropriate biochemical conditions may be beneficial to realize the functional development of engineered cartilage in vitro.

Key words: articular cartilage, tissue engineering, mechanical stimuli, biomechanics, mechanobiology

中图分类号: 

  • R318.01