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力学进展 ›› 2004, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (1): 1-8.doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-2004-1-J2003-101

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关于飞行和游动的生物力学研究

童秉纲;陆夕云   

  1. 中国科学院研究生院
  • 收稿日期:1900-01-01 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2004-03-10 发布日期:1900-01-01

A review on biomechanics of animal flight and swimming

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  1. 中国科学院研究生院
  • Received:1900-01-01 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2004-03-10 Published:1900-01-01

摘要: 论述了飞行和游动生物力学的任务和意义,以及重大科学问题和与仿生技术相关的重大需求,并概要地介绍了与生物外部流体力学有关的科学问题、研究现状以及我国现有的研究基础和特色.文中针对如下若干重点科学问题进行了论述,具体包括Gray疑题及鱼类阻力的测定问题、鱼类机动运动的特征和机理、鱼类游动的流-固耦合及整体模化等交叉问题、昆虫运动的非定常流动控制机理和能耗、昆虫翼的柔性变形效应及抗风机制、昆虫和鱼的自由运动的运动学和动力学测量.图0参72

关键词: 飞行和游动生物力学, 仿生技术, 生物外部流体, biomimetic, technology, external biofluid dynamics

Abstract: This paper discusses the task and significance of the biomechanics with respect to animal flight and swimming as well as important scientific problems of biomimetic technology in applications. Some aspects relevant to the external biofluid dynamics including scientific problems, present research status, and achievements in China are briefly reviewed. We mainly survey the following issues relevant to the external biofluid dynamics: Gray paradox and the measurement of drag force of fish swimming, characteristics and mechanisms of fish manoeuvrable swimming, the interaction of fish body and the surrounding fluid, unsteady flow controls and power requirements of insect flight, flexible and optimizing aerodynamic characteristics of insect wing, the measurement of kinematic and kinetic quantities for insect and fish free movements.

Key words: biomechanics of animal flight and swimmin, biomimetic, technology, external biofluid dynamics