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力学进展 ›› 2015, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (1): 201509-.doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-15-012

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

纯引力轨道检验质量的相对测量技术

侯振东1, 王兆魁2, 张育林1,2   

  1. 1 哈尔滨工业大学卫星技术研究所, 哈尔滨 150080;
    2 清华大学航天航空学院, 北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2015-03-05 修回日期:2015-06-11 出版日期:2015-01-01 发布日期:2015-08-21
  • 通讯作者: 张育林, 工学博士, 教授. 主要研究方向为分布式空间系统理论与应用、快速响应空间系统、空间系统智能控制与决策. 获国际宇航联合会第34 届大会Manlina 航天奖章、国家"有突出贡献的中国博士学位获得者" 称号、首届"中国航天奖"、中国科协"求是" 奖、曾宪梓载人航天基金会突出贡献奖、中国载人航天工程突出贡献奖. 获国家科技进步二等奖1 项, 全国优秀图书奖1 项, 省部级科技进步一等奖4 项、二等奖6 项, 军队教学成果二等奖1 项. 发表学术论文200 余篇, 其中SCI 检索24 篇, 出版《航天发射项目管理》、《卫星星座理论与设计》等学术著作13 部. E-mail:y.l.zhang@tsinghua.edu.cn

Relative measurement for the proof mass flying along a purely gravitational orbit

Zhendong HOU1, Zhaokui WANG2, Yulin ZHANG1,2   

  1. 1 Research Center of Satellite Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China;
    2 School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2015-03-05 Revised:2015-06-11 Online:2015-01-01 Published:2015-08-21

摘要:

纯引力轨道是物体在太空仅受引力作用的运行轨道, 通过构造纯引 力轨道, 可实现超高精度的空间引力探测, 也可为科学实验提供超稳定卫星 平台. 作为纯引力轨道构造的核心, 检验质量的相对测量不仅提供了部分任 务科学数据, 还为航天器平台的跟踪控制提供输入. 首先, 描述了纯引力轨道 的概念内涵, 总结了它在卫星重力测量、引力波探测等方面的应用情况. 其 次, 综述了不同任务对相对测量的需求, 给出了电容式测量、磁感应测量和 光学测量的原理, 总结了各自的优缺点. 根据检验质量的姿态运动, 将检验质 量质心相对状态解算问题分为3 类, 给出了基于检验质量姿态动力学与表面 建模的典型解算模型和质心速度估计方法. 最后分析了非引力干扰的理论计 算、地面实验验证和在轨实验验证问题.

关键词:

空间引力探测|纯引力轨道|相对测量|相对状态解算|非引力干扰

Abstract:

Purely gravitational orbits are the trajectories of objects in space with grav-itational force only. Once constructed, they allow us to detect spaceborne gravity with extremely high precision, and provide highly stable spacecraft platforms for scientific ex-periments. As the core of purely gravitational orbit construction, the relative measurement for the proof mass is used for scientific data acquisition, and spacecraft tracking control input. In this paper, we first present the concept of purely gravitational orbits, and sum-marize the applications on satellite gravity measurement and gravitational wave detection. Then we survey the relative measurement requirements for various missions, and give the principles, pros and cons for three major measurement methods, namely, capacitive sensing, magnetic sensing and optical sensing. According to the attitude motion of the proof mass, the relative state resolving for its mass center can be classified into three categories. We investigate the typical resolving models based on attitude dynamics and surface modeling of the proof mass, and the velocity estimation methods for mass center. Finally we discuss the-oretical computations, on-ground validations and on-orbit validations for non-gravitational disturbances.

Key words:

spaceborne gravity detection|purely gravitational orbit|relative measurement|relative state resolving|non-gravitational disturbance

中图分类号: 

  • V11