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力学进展 ›› 2015, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (1): 201501-.doi: 10.6052/1000-0992-14-065

• 综 述 •    下一篇

昆虫飞行的空气动力学

孙茂   

  1.  北京航空航天大学流体力学研究所, 北京100191
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-05 修回日期:2014-11-24 出版日期:2015-01-01 发布日期:2015-08-21
  • 通讯作者: 孙茂,1955 年8 月出生; 1978 年毕业于北京航空学院空气动力学专业, 1983 年获美国普林斯顿大学航空工程系博士学位, 1983|1985 年在美国马里兰 大学做博士后工作. 1989 年起任北京航空航天大学教授; 是"长江学者" 特 聘教授, 国务院学科评议组(力学) 成员、中国空气动力学学会副理事长、 国际刊物Journal Bionic EngineeringBioinspiration and Biomimetics的编 委. 主要研究动物飞行的流体力学机理和飞行控制原理, 为微型飞行器提供 气动布局和控制方式的新概念. 研究成果获得"教育部自然科学奖" 一等奖 和"国家自然科学奖" 二等奖; 最近应邀在国际顶尖综述刊物《现代物理评 论》发表"昆虫飞行力学" 的长篇综述论文. E-mail:m.sun@buaa.edu.cn

Aerodynamics of insect flight

Mao SUN   

  1. Institute of fluid mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191, China
  • Received:2014-11-05 Revised:2014-11-24 Online:2015-01-01 Published:2015-08-21

摘要:

昆虫是最早出现、数量最多和体积最小的飞行者. 它们能悬停、跃升、急停、快速加速和转弯, 飞行技巧十分高超. 由于尺寸小, 因而翅膀的相对速度很小, 从而进行上述飞行所需的升力系数很大. 但昆虫翅膀的雷诺数又很低. 它们是如何在低雷诺数下产生高升力的, 是流体力学和生物学工作者都十分关心的问题. 近年来这一领域有了许多研究进展. 该文对这些进展进行综述, 并对今后工作提一些建议. 因2005 年前的工作已在几篇综述文章有了详细介绍, 该文主要介绍2005 年以来的工作. 首先简述昆虫翅的拍动运动及昆虫绕流的基本方程和相似参数; 然后对2005 年之前的工作做一简要回顾. 之后介绍2005 年后的进展, 依次为: 运动学观测; 前缘涡; 翅膀柔性变形及皱褶的影响; 拍动翅的尾涡结构; 翼/身、左右翅气动干扰及地面效应; 微小昆虫; 蝴蝶与蜻蜓; 机动飞行. 最后为对今后工作的建议.

关键词:

昆虫|飞行|空气动力学

Abstract:

Insects are the earliest, most numerous and smallest fliers in the world. They can hover, fly forward, climb and descend with ease while demonstrating amazing stabilities, and they can also maneuver in impressive ways like no other organisms could. Although the wing of an insect beats at high frequency, the wing's relative velocity is small owing to the small wing length. As a result, the mean lift coefficient of wing required to balance the insect weight is relatively high, about 1.5–2, much higher than that of an airplane at cruising flight. The Reynolds number of insects' wings is small, ranging from about 10 to 3 500. How the required high-lift coefficient is produced at such low Reynolds number? Researchers are very interested in this question and in recent years, significant progress has been made in the area. Works before 2005 have been discussed in detail in several review papers, and in this article, we review the advances made since 2005. We begin with an overview of the flapping kinematics and basic equations of fluid dynamics. It is followed by a summary of the works before 2005. Then we review the advances made since 2005, dealing in turn with measurement of wing motion in freely-flying insects, leading-edge vortex, effect of wing deformation and corrugation, vortex wake of flapping wings, ground effect and aerodynamic interaction between wings and body, flight of tiny insects, flight of butterfly and dragonfly, and maneuvering flight. Finally, we make remarks on the state-of-the-art of this research field and speculate its outlooks in the near future.

Key words:

insect|flight|aerodynamics

中图分类号: 

  • V211